Why the Bitcoin supply will never reach 21 Million by ...

Bitcoin Cash to Be Valued at $12,000,000 Each

Enjoy =)
Larry Page = $41 billion
Bill Gates = $86 billion
All Cryptocurrency's = $200 billion
Amazon = $402 billion
Apple = $730 billion
USD in circulation = $1,500 billion
Gold Market Cap = $8,200 billion
Physical Money (notes/coins) = $31,200 billion
Stock Markets = $66,800 billion
All U.S. Money (bank deposits/loans) = $83,000 billion
But why doesn't EVERYBODY just convert ALL of the world's money of the ENTIRE PLANET to paying each other in gold? Gold is a great 'store of value', isn't it? Yes, it sure has value, but because it is inconvenient, hard to transport, slow, not divisible (without a third party), and difficult to keep from being robbed (without a third party), that is why the entire planet does not transact in gold, and hence why Gold's market capitalization is only $8,200 billion.
The only way this is possible, is if gold was more convenient to transact with than everything else, especially VISA. Which is impossible. You can't pay for a $100.37 item on Amazon.com, through the internet, without a third party, in a split second, by using gold.
Bitcoin (whitepaper version), can do 1,000,000 transactions per second CHEAPER than VISA. (It can probably do even more in the future), it's also at the same time a tangible currency (that takes trillions of video cards to create one single uncounterfeitable coin) aka "store of value".
So, for example's sake, let's add up all of the money (listed above), and "flood" the entire planet into using a currency ("store of value"), that is ALSO a payment system in itself BY DESIGN, able to send money to the other side of the planet, instantly, without needing to use ANY kind of outside third party, because the coin ITSELF is the third party IF it is the Whitepaper Version of Bitcoin. But if the witness data (aka transaction signatures) are segregated from the chain, then the coin (economy itself) is no longer ITS' OWN "third party" anymore, but prone to whoever wants to take advantage of the segregated witness data (whether its blockstream, bitcoin core, AXA, miners, or banks, doesn't matter). Because when the chain of digital signatures is no longer part of the blockchain, the incentive to take advantage of the system and introduce a traditional (bankegovernment) "third party" is now profitable/possible to do so. Whereas, originally, without SegWit, anybody who tried to do this would infinitely lose money in trying to do so---aka mining coins was more profitable than trying to do a 51% attack. Hence, with SegWit, we introduce a loop-hole into Bitcoin, allowing double spending of anyone's transactions, reversing anyone's transactions, halting anyone's transactions, freezing anyone's transactions, charge-backs, etc.
Now introduce $191,659 billion (see above) of the world's money to a ONE WORLD CURRENCY, that DOES NOT REQUIRE A THIRD PARTY.
17,912 x $650 current value of Bitcoin (whitepaper version) = $11,642,800 , for one coin.
90% of people who buy Bitcoin don't even know what is "Segwit" or "Blockstream" or "Satoshi" or "Whitepaper". They think it's the 'norm' that it takes hours upon hours (or even days) to get their Bitcoin. They assume that because it's "hard to get", then that is why it is valuable. Upon all of the other reasons. It's all media. It is exactly what BitConnect is doing. The only reason people are buying it, is because everyone is gambling, but are fully convinced that it is "investing". This is why Bitcoin is not going to lose its' value instantly. Nor is it going to skyrocket to an astronomical value like $100,000 instantly. But it will most definitely NOT be used as replacement currency by Walmart, Amazon, Sams Club, Coca Cola, Target, etc, and so on, it goes on FOREVER. All of these companies use VISA.
But what about other coins that already exist with little to no fees, instant transactions and end up having little to no traction and don't look like anyone cares about them??
For example.
These are the top ones I felt like choosing. I can explain every coin on the list. But the entire point, is that for EVERY one of these coins, Bitcoin Cash does it better. Bitcoin Cash has 0-conf (Bitcoin used to have it until the system could not accept anymore transactions and started backlogging transactions---aka full blocks). Bitcoin Cash has scripting functions (aka smart contracts). Bitcoin used to have it when the transaction fees only cost 1-5 cents per block... But no one wants to use the scripting functions anymore when you have to pay $5-$100 for each block.
There is a reason why Satoshi did not design Bitcoin (whitepaper version) like any of the other coins. It is because he already thought about those other designs.
Bitcoin legacy forfeited it's security model (whitepaper version) as soon as it changed protocol to SegWit.
submitted by MartinGandhiKennedy to btc [link] [comments]

10 Reasons Why Bitcoin is Better than Conventional Currency

  1. Theft resistance: Stealing of bitcoins is not possible until the adversary have the private keys (usually kept offline) that are associated with the user wallet. In particular, Bitcoin provides security by design, for instance, unlike with credit cards you dont expose your secret (private key) whenever you make a transaction.
  2. Btc cannot be falsified, dollars well you know When you transfer bitcoins to someone you don't hand over "a bitcoin". You submit a transaction to the network. The network makes sure your address is valid and has the proper value. So there is no risk of counterfeiting because there is nothing to counterfeit.
  3. Durability, Portability, Divisibility, How do you destroy a number? Bitcoins are as durable as the owner makes the keys. If the only copy of the key is on a computer and you throw out the computer, the bitcoins die with the hard drive. If the proper precautions are taken, the keys are as durable as the medium. In order to destroy the network, you would need to eliminate all computers running the software. This includes the computer running in space. It is possible but unlikely.
You can just travel among different countries with millions in Btc, you just have to memorize your private key, here is where btc is much more portable than gold, cash and even bank transfers that can have several limitations.
Without a way to instantly transport gold from person to person, which is impossible without some sort of incredible breakthrough resulting in teleportation, then transportation costs, or the reliance on central vaults to store the gold, remain an issue. then, the gold itself is so useful for much of the technology we rely on today, as well as technology that is being developed, that our gold supply is truly needed for industrial uses. For the first time in history, humans are actually “consuming” gold
Bitcoin is infinitely divisible. Currently, 1 bitcoin can only be broken down into 100,000,000 smaller units, known as satoshis. However, that limit is not set in stone. If, at some point, more than 2,100,000,000,000,000, or 2.1 quadrillion, units of currency are needed, then it would not be difficult to allow the currency to be broken down to another decimal point or two.
  1. It’s borderless. You could go to any country and use it. It is safer to carry bitcoins than to carry cash, especially if you bring a large amount of money or if you’re travelling to a country with higher crime rates. Bitcoin is easy to exchange to major local currencies, if you plan to travel to multiple countries and wish to avoid the hassle of exchanging money.
If the establishment doesn’t accept bitcoin payments, sell your bitcoins (through LocalBitcoins) or withdraw your money from ATMs with the help of payment cards.
  1. It’s not subject to the whims of a government. The supply is constant and the price is determined by free market demand. We can know how many bitcoin will be circulating in ten, twenty or seventy years, for example, are you able you know how many US dollars will be circulating at that moment, or how many of your fiduciary currency will be printed?
  2. Bitcoin transactions are instant. When a bitcoin is sent, the transaction immediately begins to spread through the network. The recipient can see that they have received the transaction instantly, or within a few seconds. Then, once it has been fully confirmed, it would be statistically improbable for it to be invalid. I would say impossible, but that is not completely true. However, after a few confirmations, you are more likely to win the lottery than have a transaction turn out to be invalid.
  3. Secure store of value. This use case is crucial in environments where citizens cannot trust that institutions will be responsible stewards of their hard-earned money. Consider the tragic case of a country like Venezuela, where individuals’ property and savings can be confiscated by authorities through law or inflation. Many Venezuelans are unfortunately unable to access traditional forms of exit such as emigration or stealthily accruing more stable sovereign currencies. With cryptocurrency, more Venezuelans have an alternative: They can opt to purchase or mine a secure store of value that cannot be confiscated or inflated away by their government because they alone control their private keys. (Indeed, cryptocurrencies are especially popular in Venezuela for precisely this reason.)
It is also very useful to send and receive remittances without paying high fees and only with your mobile, without having to go to a money exchanger physically
  1. Smart contracts. For example, let’s say that Alice would like to gift her granddaughter, Erin, with a sum of money upon her 18th birthday. Today, Alice’s option is basically to hire a lawyer to create a trust that will hold the funds and disburse them on the appointed date. Being a technologically-savvy grandmother, however, Alice knows that she can simply program a smart contract to do the same thing without having to employ an intermediary. Alice creates a cryptocurrency wallet for herself and another for her granddaughter Erin. Alice sends the equivalent of $10,000 to her wallet and programs a smart contract. The contract is set up so that on the day of Erin’s birthday—let’s say January 3, 2027—the contract will automatically move the funds from Alice’s wallet directly to Erin’s, where she will have complete control of those funds. Once Alice sets the transaction in motion, she no longer has access to the funds, just as if she had created a trust. (it works also for inheritances)
  2. It’s banking the unbanked. You can bypass the traditional banking system, avoid surveillance, and get rid of hefty fees. Cryptocurrencies remove the need to rely on this trusted third party to make a transaction. In effect, a cryptocurrency replaces a third party like Bank of America or PayPal with the network itself, which is managed by a distributed web of computers all across the world. This means that Alice can make a payment online directly to Bob whenever and wherever she wants, without needing to introduce another party which may be cumbersome or expensive. This also means that people without access to banking services can now take part in digital commerce.
Programmers, developers, online teachers, designers and anyone who can do online work can benefit from this bitcoin advantage, especially in poorer countries where most people can not access international bank accounts.
  1. Bitcoin has no risk of credit card fraud or credit card chargebacks, Compared to traditional payment methods, bitcoin is an attractive prospect for business owners, Bitcoin has no risk of credit card fraud or credit card chargebacks,This is a huge problem for the travel industry because the payments are often large.
For example, many European or American online stores block or avoid receiving credit card payments from Africa because of the fraud risks, with bitcoin, online stores could accept purchases from customers from Africa without chargeback risks, both parties win, the Buyers can access the merchandise and sellers can sell without risk.
submitted by raftoni to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

21 million Bitcoins. Is that even enough to?

Even divisible 10,000 times, when they are all discovered, are 21 million Bitcoins enough to satisfy the worlds currency needs?
submitted by n1nj4_v5_p1r4t3 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Coin split?

When a stock's value goes up so much that it becomes out of reach to casual investors, the company will perform a stock split, assigning all holders of the stock some multiple of their current shares in an effort to drop the price of each individual share. For example, in a 3-for-1 stock split, every share that is owned gets tripled, so that those who are holding 100 shares are granted 200 more shares for a total of 300 shares. The effect of this maneuver is that the price would fall to 1/3rd its current value while the value of shares held does not change at all.
Is a coin split possible?
I know, of course, that Dash is infinitely divisible. But right now, a $3 cup of coffee costs 0.002 Dash, which isn't easy or pleasurable to communicate.
I also know there are names for particular divisions of Dash - i.e. that $3 cup of coffee is really just 2 "mDash" - but then we have the problem of brand identification. What is an mDash? Is that like Dash in the way Bitcoin Cash is like Bitcoin?
The only potential flaws I see in this is the possibly odd effects it could have on exchanges. If the "wallet" you see in your exchange account isn't actually a representation of what is on the blockchain, but instead your "wallet" is an entry in the exchange's own private database, then this could cause problems.
However, we should give this serious consideration. I like Dash because the development team and community are focused on making it a medium of exchange. If each Dash is worth $2000 (or, I think, more) then it will be very difficult to talk transactions in Dash.
Thoughts?
submitted by cultfitnews to dashpay [link] [comments]

Idea: Progeny AltCoins. Think of Bitcoin as Gold and a specifically programmed AltCoin-in-a-box as currency directly redeemable for Bitcoin held in a "Fort Knox" wallet.

So I have this idea which I haven't seen anywhere else, and wanted to share it to see if it makes sense or not.
My understanding is that bitcoin has some issues with transaction speed (and/or transaction cost) which causes people to worry about its ability to go mainstream and establish itself as a core global currency.
What if instead of expecting bitcoin to be as practical as USD, EUR, GBP etc, we actually thought of it more like the Gold of crypto?
Back when we tied our national currencies to gold, the paper notes were meant to be literally redeemable for gold (or silver, or coin, etc). The currency was tied to a guaranteed asset.
Paper is much easier to carry around than gold. It is much more divisible (infinitely so) than gold. It is more practical in virtually every way possible - it just has no value outside of the promise it carries. It promises to be worth gold. So as long as people believe gold has value, the paper has value. And whether gold is convenient for handling transactions or not is irrelevant.
So why not use Bitcoin the same way?
We need to program a specific "AltCoin-In-A-Box" program which anyone could easily run and create their own AltCoin.
It would work like this:
During setup of the new AltCoin, the new blockchain programmatically ties itself to a bitcoin wallet, which we will call "Fort Knox". An exchange rate is chosen, for example, 1BTC = 1000 ProgenyCoins, and the setup is complete.
An interface is then made available which allows people to buy your newly created ProgenyCoins from the "Federal Reserve" of ProgenyCoin-istan. Register your intent to buy (provide bitcoin address where BTC are coming from, and ProgenyCoins address where your ProgenyCoins will go), then send 1BTC to "Fort Knox" and await the (slow, painful, horrific) BTC transaction to be confirmed.
As soon as the BTC transaction is confirmed, "The Federal Reserve" sends you 1000 ProgenyCoins. "The Federal Reserve" can produce as many of these coins as it needs to meet the BTC deposit in Fort Knox, and will only pay out ProgenyCoins for that reason. Similarly, sending ProgenyCoins to "The Federal Reserve" will allow you to withdraw BTC to a BTC wallet of your choosing.
Buying ProgenyCoins from the fed on this brand spanking new tiny blockchain which is optimised for rapid, free transactions has now given you a practical local currency to use in everyday transactions which doesn't require the bitcoin chain, but still benefits from all of the value held in the bitcoin chain. If bitcoin rises in value, so too will the value of your ProgenyCoins. And since all of these new progeny coins are being created by locking BTC up in "Fort Knoxes" all over the planet, the value of BTC is likely to increase to match the increased demand and lost supply.
Basically, the parent BTC blockchain is spawning lightweight, mostly-independent, children chains to do the transaction work for it. Hence the progeny reference. Obviously.
Considerations and Risk
  1. By making the original code for this concept a well established opensource piece of software, the "AltCoin-In-A-Box" certificate of BTC redeemability will guarantee the value of every new ProgenyCoin you encounter. Presumably the "AltCoin-In-A-Box" software could also include a generic platform which will handle all such coin-wallets in one place.
  2. Each new coin will need to gain enough nodes/miners to ensure security against attacks before people can be confident trusting them to not steal their money. Perhaps an international organisation can help provide early stage node hosting for a fee paid by the originator of the currency? (I haven't really put any thought into the incentivisation for 'mining' - I guess transactions would need a miner fee to ensure people did run full nodes?)
  3. Many more I haven't thought of, I am sure.
Thoughts?
submitted by Aegist to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Is it possible to put coin back in a block?

So apparently an estimated 30-40% of mined coins have been lost. This bothers me more than most. I know the coins in infinitely divisible, but even if we increase the decimal places, I just don't see people paying with fractions of a satoshi.
more than that. It seems like something the general public would latch onto and see as a problem, even if it isnt.
I think, if a address has bitcoin in it, but the address hasn't had any transactions in 100 years or so, that it is lost bitcoin. Would it be possible, through a hard fork or something, to take those coins in those lost wallets, and put them in blocks to be mined?
That way, if some billionaire dies without telling anyone how to access his wallet, years later his funds would be put back into the economy.
The other solution would be to move back the denominations every time you have to add a new decimal place because of deflation... So if you add a decimal place, 100 milibits would be called the new "bitcoin" and 100 bits would be the new "milibit"... but that could cause more problems than it solves.
I know a lot of you are likely in favor of lost coins, as it raises the value of the coins you are saving, but I think the public might see this as a problem... and that makes it a problem for adoption.
submitted by ProfessorViking to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Why does it matter if BTCs get permanently lost in the system?

One of the recurring criticisms I've seen about bitcoin is that there is no remedial mechanism to account for "lost" BTC in the system. This has already happened on a large scale with some exchanges like Bitomat (70k BTC lost due to accidently deleting wallet.dat + no backup). But it also can easily happen on a small scale if BTC holders unexpectedly die, forget their wallet password etc.
Since BTC are infinitely divisible, I don't understand why the absolute number of BTC really matters at all? I always thought that the number of 21 million total BTC was just random and didn't really matter to the economy. If coins get lost in the system, people would just price goods up accordingly no?
submitted by kittkatt0 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Expiration

Don't shoot, I'm just asking a question/making a statement.
I haven't bought into bitcoin for a very simple reason, I don't see it's long term potential as being very likely because of it's instability. I'm not talking about the day-to-day price of bitcoin, I'm talking more of the rules and foundation of bitcoin as a currency.
Bitcoin isn't so much a currency as it is a collectible. It's like buying a collectible plate, only 100 made. Or a collectible comic book, only 10,000 printed. Or a collectible crypto-coin, only 21,000,000 created.
Now, knowing that someone out there had 1,000 bitcoin in his wallet, and only they know their password, when they are killed in a car wreck, there'll be 1,000 fewer bitcoins to compete with.
That makes sense when you are investing in a collectible car. That doesn't make any sense when talking about a currency.
For a currency, honestly, Bitcoin is very compelling. But this issue, and the issue of ASIC mining both mean that a number of people will shy away from it when it comes to treating it seriously. I can't argue for Bitcoin for these two reasons.
Don't take me for a "Deflationary = fail" person, I'm not. Inflation is bad too. A perfect currency would be stable. Yes, a perfect currency should be stable. Once the currency is accepted, to be perfect, it should not inflate, or deflate. But, it should also be active.
So here's the question: Wouldn't it be better if Wallets were programmed to "check in" on every coin they hold, say once a month, to show that the coin was still being actively held? If nothing checks in on a particular coin after 10 years, drop the coin from the chain and assign it back to a pool to eventually give out to a miner?
Really, a once a month check in from a piece of software that holds your coins should be trivial. If done more than once a month, you'd ignore the update. And the only thing that would need to be part of the chain would be the date/time of the last Wallet check-in.
I understand Satoshis complicate this. But, for the sake of discussion...
Just asking.
submitted by Tsiox to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin as Gold reserve to AltCoins

So I have this idea which I haven't seen anywhere else, and wanted to share it to see if it makes sense or not.
My understanding is that bitcoin has some issues with transaction speed (and/or transaction cost) which causes people to worry about its ability to go mainstream and establish itself as a core global currency. What if instead of expecting bitcoin to be as practical as USD, EUR, GBP etc, we actually thought of it more like the Gold of crypto?
Back when we tied our national currencies to gold, the paper notes were meant to be literally redeemable for gold (or silver, or coin, etc). The currency was tied to a guaranteed asset.
Paper is much easier to carry around than gold. It is much more divisible (infinitely so) than gold. It is more practical in virtually every way possible - it just has no value outside of the promise it carries. It promises to be worth gold. So as long as people believe gold has value, the paper has value. And whether gold is convenient for handling transactions or not is irrelevant.
So why not use Bitcoin the same way?
We need to program a specific "AltCoin-In-A-Box" program which anyone could easily run and create their own AltCoin.
It would work like this:
During setup of the new AltCoin, the new blockchain programmatically ties itself to a bitcoin wallet, which we will call "Fort Knox". An exchange rate is chosen, for example, 1BTC = 1000 ProgenyCoins, and the setup is complete.
An interface is then made available which allows people to buy your newly created ProgenyCoins from the "Federal Reserve" of ProgenyCoin-istan. Register your intent to buy (provide bitcoin address where BTC are coming from, and ProgenyCoins address where your ProgenyCoins will go), then send 1BTC to "Fort Knox" and await the (slow, painful, horrific) BTC transaction to be confirmed.
As soon as the BTC transaction is confirmed, "The Federal Reserve" sends you 1000 ProgenyCoins. "The Federal Reserve" can produce as many of these coins as it needs to meet the BTC deposit in Fort Knox, and will only pay out ProgenyCoins for that reason. Similarly, sending ProgenyCoins to "The Federal Reserve" will allow you to withdraw BTC to a BTC wallet of your choosing.
Buying ProgenyCoins from the fed on this brand spanking new tiny blockchain which is optimised for rapid, free transactions has now given you a practical local currency to use in everyday transactions which doesn't require the bitcoin chain, but still benefits from all of the value held in the bitcoin chain. If bitcoin rises in value, so too will the value of your ProgenyCoins. And since all of these new progeny coins are being created by locking BTC up in "Fort Knoxes" all over the planet, the value of BTC is likely to increase to match the increased demand and lost supply.
Basically, the parent BTC blockchain is spawning lightweight, mostly-independent, children chains to do the transaction work for it. Hence the progeny reference. Obviously.
Considerations and Risks
  1. By making the original code for this concept a well established opensource piece of software, the "AltCoin-In-A-Box" certificate of BTC redeemability will guarantee the value of every new ProgenyCoin you encounter. Presumably the "AltCoin-In-A-Box" software could also include a generic platform which will handle all such coin-wallets in one place.
  2. Each new coin will need to gain enough nodes/miners to ensure security against attacks before people can be confident trusting them to not steal their money. Perhaps an international organisation can help provide early stage node hosting for a fee paid by the originator of the currency? (I haven't really put any thought into the incentivisation for 'mining' - I guess transactions would need a miner fee to ensure people did run full nodes?)
  3. Many more I haven't thought of, I am sure.
Thoughts?
submitted by Aegist to btc [link] [comments]

How Bitcoin could be turned into a global financial state's wet dream.[X-post Anarcho_Capitalism]

"China's state TV ran bitcoin segments and the hearing today was largely positive. Why? From the outside it almost appears as if China and the US, who both realize the dollar will soon collapse, leaving a void for a world currency, are thus far ok with bitcoin heading in that direction. Perhaps they doubt it will ever get there or perhaps they will start to be more aggressive when it gets bigger. Although with everything I know about the world this seems very suspicious. In a lot of ways though, bitcoin, as a global currency, combined with a CoinValidation style central database of who owns which wallet could actually bring about a whole new level of government power. I know this has a pretty big conspiratorial tint to it and it could very well be the case that they just don't perceive it as a threat but I think it is important to think these things through. Here is one way that BTC could be co-opted to serve the state: Bitcoin in its current incarnation is forced to use CoinValidation or similar company. CoinValidation is essentially a large database connecting wallets and coins with identities. Therefore an transaction in the world can be instantly recognized and tracked by the government, simply using this database and the blockchain. Next the government(s) acquire, through taxation, large quantities of bitcoins, and after doing so, they start to invalidate regular citizen's coins, therefore driving up the value of their own coins. Although bitoin is currently only divisible into 100,000,000 units, this can be extended infinitely. They could also simply taint your coins as 'taxed' and if you did anything other than send them to 1IRS10jf0934jd039jdljelaw4rj394fj3kja they could taint the rest of your coins or prosecute you according to their database. It will be interesting how they react to CoinJoin or Zerocoin, fully anonymous adaptations to bitcoin."
submitted by thunderyak to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

My incompetence as a little story

I discovered bitcoins back in April during a crazy (at the time) surge. I got right to mining because why the hell not? Get paid to let my computer sit around and think, yes please.
I made a wallet with the full BlockChain desktop program. It took days to authenticate or do something, I still don't really know what it did. I also found slush's pool and started getting my first shares. Everything was cool and I was loving the ideas that came with bitcoin. Single international currency, anonymity, infinitely divisible, instant payments, and best of all (for me at least) no physical medium. Shit is the future, but I didn't know how to put that wallet on an iPhone, I was stupid, still am.
So I made a new wallet somewhere else that had a step by step for getting set up with the BlockChain iPhone app. I put the wallet.json thing on an external HDD because I'm not dumb. I'm not going to loose my valuable bitcoins just as I'm getting going. Also I was reading that it was good to have multiple wallets in case something happens to your computer, or whatever else you have it saved on. I put it away and didn't really think anything of it until I was looking through my history on slush's pool.
holy shit I have a third of a coin on there :D I should fire up the hdd and merge the wallets and shop around on gyft. They are doing nothing just sitting there. I do just that and I'm just confused at what I see, well it looks like someone formatted the drive and just used it to mule a bunch of movies around.
We went to the beach the first week of August, I made sure we had a rainy day plan. I for whatever reason felt the need to format away a tiny file to make room for a couple of movies. Smart move past me. high five
I'm only writing this because I just finished ripping the apartment apart looking for anything I may have written down about it in the past hour, I saw the site that can possibly crack the wallet if you can give them most of the info. I didn't pick the key since that was arguably insecure. It's some ungodly random string of shit. So it's gone forever, no arguments here, it's part of the design and I understand that, now.
My current wallet though, I think I got it covered. The wallet.dat is saved in 3 physical locations and I have the paper wallets that represent them printed out in a firebox and at my parents house. My bitcoins aren't getting away this time! Still mining away, still watching them climb to the moon. Also waiting for some places around here to accept some so I can really take part in the badass future currency.
TL:DR iPhones are too hard for me therefore I threw a third of a bitcoin away so we would have some movies to watch just in case it rained.
submitted by Thilly to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

InvestInBlockchain - Cryptocurrencies in the Top 100 With Working Products

Bitcoin (BTC)

📷
Bitcoin is the cryptocurrency that started it all back in 2009, after the global financial crisis and subsequent bailouts of banks left many people disenfranchised with fiat currency and outdated, insecure financial infrastructure.
Today, Bitcoin is being used for peer-to-peer payments across the globe. More than that, though, it is leading the way towards a future in which financial technology is trustless, secure, resilient, and censorship resistant. Without Bitcoin, this list would not exist.

Ethereum (ETH)

📷
The platform that brought smart contracts to the blockchain, spurring a minor revolution in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Before Ethereum, Bitcoin and its transaction-oriented design was the central focus of most blockchain projects.
After Ethereum, teams saw the value of decentralized apps (dapps) and smart contracts, and shifted their focus to compensate.
Vitalik Buterin’s Ethereum whitepaper was released in late 2013. The project itself was announced January 2014, with a crowdsale the following July. The system officially went live in July 2015.
Since then, hundreds of businesses, individuals, and blockchain projects have adopted Ethereum as their main smart contracts platform.

Ripple (XRP)

📷
Ripple is focused primarily on one thing: fast and cheap international transactions.
Current banking infrastructure has failed to evolve in the 21st century, such that it still takes 3-5 business days on average for an international transfer to be processed. With just 4 second transaction times and at a fraction of the cost of a wire transfer, Ripple’s working product is already impacting the banking sector.
The big knock against Ripple is that its native token, XRP, is completely unnecessary. Indeed, driving adoption of Ripple’s banking solutions is far easier than getting real-world adoption for XRP.
If you’re interested in seeing a discussion about how XRP adoption will occur, you might find this reddit thread worth a read. Meanwhile, all of us will just have to wait and see whether XRP adoption strategies ultimately come to fruition.

Bitcoin Cash (BCH)

📷
Bitcoin Cash was created in 2017 when the first ever hard fork of the Bitcoin blockchain took place. The split was the result of Bitcoin’s 1MB blocks filling up. Transaction speeds were declining, fees were increasing, and it became clear to the community that the current model wasn’t sustainable for scaling.
In a move that still causes cryptocurrency fights to this day, Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash soon emerged as separate but similar projects. BCH has 8x the block size of BTC, giving it roughly 8x the transaction throughput. Its fees and transaction times are much faster, as predicted.
Learn more about Bitcoin vs Bitcoin Cash.

Stellar (XLM)

📷
The Stellar project and its associated Lumens (XLM) token was forked from the Ripple protocol in 2014. Stellar has come into its own since then, providing a blockchain connection service for fiat transactions between banks, payment systems, and people. Stellar is fast and reliable, and it works with practically no fees for the end-user.
Stellar is a payments system, meaning its job is to move money as efficiently as possible. Partnerships with banks and financial institutions were key in evaluating its status, as was the ability to actually send money using the network.
Several non-profits and commercial entities have agreed to use Stellar as part of their financial infrastructure. Recently, the team partnered with IBM and KlickEx to facilitate cross-border transactions in the South Pacific and announced an affiliate with Keybase to streamline international transactions.
Stellar also has projects being built on its network by major established entities. IBM’s blockchain division is using XLM for their payments infrastructure, for example, and the Veridium startup is working with both organizations to tokenize its carbon credits market.

Litecoin (LTC)

📷
Litecoin is a Bitcoin fork that was created in 2011 by Charlie Lee as a cheaper and faster (2.5 minute block time instead of 10) alternative to Bitcoin. This is accomplished predominantly because Litecoin uses a Scrypt hashing algorithm instead of the SHA-256 algorithm used by Bitcoin. It’s common to hear Litecoin called “digital silver” to Bitcoin’s “digital gold,” and in reality Litecoin does not really expand upon the functionality of Bitcoin in a significant way so much as it makes different tradeoffs.
That being said, it does succeed in being cheaper and faster to use than BTC, which has led to it being accepted by hundreds of merchants and thus making Litecoin one of the most widely used cryptocurrencies for digital payments.

Tether (USDT)

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Tether is an unusual project. Whereas most cryptocurrencies rise and fall in value, Tether was designed to stay the same, fixed at a 1:1 ratio with the U.S. dollar.
This allows users to store, send, and receive digital currencies across platforms without incurring significant losses due to value fluctuations.
The Tether stable coin sounds straightforward, but the project isn’t without controversy. USDT is supposedly backed by real USD sitting in a bank account. But in which account? Who controls it? And is Tether being used to manipulate the value of Bitcoin? It’s all part of the Tether controversy.

Monero (XMR)

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Released in 2014 as a fork of Bytecoin, Monero has since made a name for itself as the most popular privacy coin on the market.
Most cryptocurrencies offer little in the form of anonymity. Monero was built for privacy from the ground-up, featuring stealth addresses, ring signatures, and complete coin fungibility. All of this adds up to a near-perfect cloak of anonymity, allowing Monero users to conduct transactions without exposing their identity.
Monero has had steady growth over the years thanks to a dedicated team of developers and an active community. The project continues to evolve with new privacy features and improved transaction security.

NEO (NEO)

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NEO was founded in 2014 as one of the earliest smart contract platforms, giving it a wide breadth of possible functionality. The platform’s strongest use case is digitizing traditional assets so that they can be easily tracked and exchanged on the blockchain.
NEO is also well-known as the “Chinese Ethereum,” and the fact that it is a Chinese-based project does seem to make Chinese dapp developers somewhat more likely to build on top of it than other platforms.
In fact, NEO has already supported dozens of ICOs and remains one of the predominant platforms for supporting smart contracts and dapps.

Binance Coin (BNB)

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Binance Coin is an exchange token used to reduce trading fees on the Binance platform.
Users can opt to pay exchange, listing, and withdrawal fees using BNB and enjoy as much as a 50% discount on all charges. This turns out to be a powerful incentive for purchasing and holding BNB, as what trader doesn’t enjoy saving money on transactions?
Binance Coin is an ERC-20 token that runs on the Ethereum blockchain. Its purpose is extremely limited, but because such a vast number of Binance users transact with it every day, it qualifies as a working and active product.

Zcash (ZEC)

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Zcash is another immensely popular privacy coin that often cracks the top 20 cryptocurrencies. It uses the tagline “internet money” and promises to fully protect the privacy of transactions with zero-knowledge cryptography.
Zcash provides anonymity by shielding transactions on the blockchain, preventing anyone from seeing the sender, recipient, or value of each transaction. The technology is so effective the Ethereum team is investigating it to enable anonymous transactions on their network.
Zcash has grown in leaps and bounds in 2018. The dev team published a roadmap through the year 2020, which includes a major features upgrade in the October 2018 Sapling release. Coinbase is also considering listing Zcash, which is a huge boost for any cryptocurrency.

Qtum (QTUM)

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Qtum is a smart contracts platform similar to Ethereum, only with a stronger focus on value transfers and decentralized apps. It’s meant to be something of a hybrid between Bitcoin and Ethereum, allowing businesses to build smart contracts on the platform or just focus on cryptocurrency transactions.
Qtum launched in March 2017, and dashed straight to the top. The initial offering sold over $10 million in tokens after just 90 minutes. The project differentiated itself by providing a rare Proof-of-Stake smart contracts platform designed to compensate for some of Ethereum’s shortcomings, including lack of compatibility for mobile devices.
Qtum released its mainnet in September 2017, opening the doors to a fully functional smart contract and dapps platform. Several projects already have an established presence on the network. One of the more exciting ones is Space Chain, which aims to create an open-source satellite network anyone can use for data transmission, storage, and development.

0x Protocol (ZRX)

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0x Protocol has one of the most important working products in the entire Ethereum ecosystem. It is a permissionless, open-source protocol that facilitates trustless exchanges of Ethereum tokens through relayers and dapps that build on top of the protocol.
Not only has 0x been providing this functionality for over a year now, but they’ve been working to expand the protocol functionality significantly since that initial launch. In 0x protocol 2.0 and beyond, it will be possible to trade tokens built on standards besides ERC-20, including non-fungible ERC-721 tokens.
In a market full of scams and vaporware, 0x’s valuable contributions to the Ethereum ecosystem have made it one of the best performing cryptocurrencies of 2018.

Bytecoin (BCN)

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Bytecoin is another popular privacy-focused cryptocurrency with a strong community and user base. Transactions on the Bytecoin blockchain are instantaneous, untraceable, unlinkabe, and resistant to blockchain analysis.
Bytecoin has been around for a long time now, with contributions to the project beginning in 2012. However, that hasn’t stopped the project’s developers from continuously improving the product.
The recently updated Bytecoin roadmap has a hard fork for a consensus update scheduled for August 31, as well as numerous initiatives for community growth constantly in the works.

Decred (DCR)

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Founded in 2015 by former Bitcoin developers, Decred’s most important working product is its solution to Bitcoin’s biggest problem. No, not scalability… blockchain governance.
You see, early Bitcoiners have been debating block size limitations and the efficacy of other scalability solutions like the Lightning Network for years, even though the problem of scalability really only became discussed in the mainstream in 2017.
With its community-based governance model and strong adherence to the core ethos of decentralization, Decred is built to evolve and improve rapidly. That means that it’s equipped to handle not only the scalability problem today, but other big problems that might arise down the line.
When you have poor governance, it is an arduous process making any upgrades to a project, no matter how necessary they may seem to the majority of coin holders. Decred’s best-in-class and still improving governance model give it an intriguing case to be a leader in digital payments for a long time to come.

BitShares (BTS)

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BitShares aims to improve worldwide access to financial services via blockchain. The tagline “assist the unbanked” summarizes the project nicely. In practice, this translates to BitShares operating as a decentralized exchange, one that was built from the ground-up to avoid scalability issues and keep transaction fees low.
BitShares was launched in 2014 by Dan Larimer, who would then go on to take a lead development role in both EOS and Steem.
The current state of the project offers decentralized asset exchange, price-stable cryptocurrencies, recurring and scheduled payments, user-issued assets, and more, all available through a decentralized system powered by delegated PoS consensus.

Steem (STEEM)

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Steem is the cryptocurrency that powers Steemit, a decentralized social media platform that incentivizes user participation through micropayments. Think of it like Reddit, only instead of just upvoting or downvoting posts, users can actually reward creators for their effort.
Steem is a functional cryptocurrency used exclusively on the Steemit platform. That gives it something of a limited use, but seeing as how Steemit is live and boasts a few hundred thousand users, it’s hard to argue it isn’t a working product. Some people may even be earning money using Steemit.

Siacoin (SIA)

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Siacoin is one of the leaders in decentralized cloud storage, a more secure and affordable alternative to centralized cloud storage solutions like Amazon S3, Google Drive, iCloud, Dropbox, and others.
Sia 1.0 was launched in June 2016, and has achieved considerable adoption since then. With the $200 billion cloud storage market widely seen as one of the spaces most ripe for blockchain disruption, Sia has gotten off to a nice start by offering a functional decentralized cloud storage platform for over 2 years.

Augur (REP)

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Augur is one of the most recently launched products on this list. The platform mainnet went live in early July 2018, bringing to fruition almost 4 years of post-ICO work.
Augur is a decentralized prediction market that uses game theory to generate crowd-sourced insights. Essentially, thousands of people working together have shown the remarkable ability to forecast outcomes.
With Augur, users can put REP tokens as bets on these predictions, essentially creating a form of “useful social gambling.”
Augur’s release was a long time coming. The project started as far back as 2014, nearly a year before the ICO. The creators cite the complexity of Augur’s smart contracts as the chief cause of the lengthy development time.
Regardless of its past, Augur is now a live product with a bright future. Over 300 predictions have already been made, with the largest winning payout hitting $20,000. Betting volume even exceeded $1 million within the first weeks of launch.

Basic Attention Token (BAT)

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Basic Attention Token was one of the easiest projects to include on this list. That’s because its working product, Brave Browser, has more than 3 million active usersbetween its mobile and desktop platforms, making it one of the most widely-used working products in the blockchain space.
Not only is Brave Browser functional, it’s the only browser on the market that has built-in ad-blocking and tracker blocking, making the browsing experience both cleaner and faster than what you get with other popular browsers like Chrome and Firefox.
The future remains uncertain for the BAT token itself, as its adoption depends heavily on whether or not advertisers buy-in to the Brave model, as well as how willing Brave users are to be shown relevant ads and to pass along the BAT they earn to content publishers.
Given Brave’s success in just a short time since being launched, though, the future does appear promising for BAT.

Nano (XRB)

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Nano (formerly RaiBlocks) is all about scalability. The coin has nearly instant transactions with a completely fee-less structure. The platform accomplishes this by creating a unique blockchain for every account, preventing bloat and allowing for practically infinite scalability.
Nano’s motto of “do one thing and do it well” has gotten them a long way. The team doesn’t have to deal with scaling or slowdown issues thanks to the underlying structure of the project, allowing its roadmap to focus on wallet updates and outreach. This is one cryptocurrency that’s essentially feature complete, and it has been for some time.

Golem (GNT)

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Golem has set out to be the Airbnb of computing resources. Have you ever needed extra GPU power to finish up a render? How about processing scientific data similar to the [email protected] project?
Even if you don’t have those needs, a lot of groups do. Golem aims to provide easy access to those resources, all of which are rentable for a small cryptocurrency fee.
Golem hit the mainnet launch button in April 2018, and was met with a fair amount of fanfare. One of the main goals for the feature-incomplete launch was to push the product out so real users could put it to work.
The team was interested in strengthening their interactions with end users to help guide the future of the platform. The team has several major milestones planned for the coming months, so the mainnet release is only just the beginning.

Pundi X (NPXS)

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Pundi X has been shooting up the market cap rankings so far in Q3 2018, and they also happen to have a working product that just recently became available to retailers.
The primary Pundi X product is a point-of-sale (POS) device that enables quick and easy mobile transactions for both fiat and cryptocurrencies. 500 POS devices are already being used by retailers in Asia, and there are thousands more scheduled to be distributed in the coming months.
In addition, Pundi X also offers XPASS cards, cryptocurrency credit cards that can work in place of mobile apps for making digital payments.
What makes the Pundi X project noteworthy is that it enables consumers to pay retailers in cryptocurrencies like BTC and ETH, and it immediately converts the payments into local fiat currencies so that retailers don’t need to worry about price volatility of the cryptocurrencies.
This makes it significantly easier for people to use cryptocurrencies in their daily lives, making Pundi X an exciting project for blockchain enthusiasts who are looking for signs of future mass adoption.

Waves (WAVES)

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Waves was the first ever blockchain platform that made it possible for anybody — regardless of their programming experience — to create blockchain tokens. Additionally, Waves has a decentralized exchange where tokens can be traded and exchanged with fiat currencies.
Since the project’s first releases in 2016, Waves has gone on to make their DEX accessible from mobile phones and expanded its functionality significantly, while also building several strategic partnerships to help grow the Waves community and user base.
Ultimately, though, the Waves Client is the project’s most important working product, as it is what allows tokens to be issued, stored, sent, and exchanged among users.

KuCoin Shares (KCS)

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Similar to Binance Coin, KuCoin Shares is an exchange token that can be used to pay reduced fees on cryptocurrency trades. KCS has the added bonus of paying dividends to long-term hodlers, as well, paying out a 5% ROI for most users.
The nature of KuCoin Shares is one of the reasons the KuCoin exchange has gotten so much attention since it appeared on the scene. The tokens themselves are limited in scope, of course, but the sheer number of people using them for trades and buying them for passive income is enormous.

Wanchain (WAN)

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Wanchain aims to build new and improved financial infrastructure to seamlessly connect the digital economy through blockchain interoperability. The use cases for Wanchain’s network are vast, and they include decentralized financial services, supply chain logistics, medical data sharing and security, digital ID management, and more.
With the recently released Wanchain 2.0, it is now possible to transfer Ether cross-chain using Wanchain’s Ethereum Mapping Token, WETH.
Ethereum interoperability is just the start, though, and it’s expected that cross-chain support for Bitcoin and a couple of ERC-20 tokens will follow before the end of 2018.

Komodo (KMD)

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Komodo is a fork of Zcash that uses the same zk-snark cryptography to hide information about transaction participants and amounts being sent. Functional privacy coins aren’t unique (there are a handful on this list) but Komodo does have some unique features.
For one, Komodo was the first ever decentralized initial coin offering. Moreover, Komodo helps other developers to build their own customizable blockchain solutions, from building and securing independent blockchains and launching decentralized ICOs, to integrating projects into the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
KMD would already qualify as a working product for its anonymity features on digital payments, but add the end-to-end blockchain building solution and it’s clear that Komodo is making meaningful contributions to the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

Ardor (ARDR)

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Ardor is a scalable blockchain platform that allows businesses to create their own child chains and tokens with relative ease. This helps keep blockchain bloat to a minimum and provides multiple transactional tokens without sacrificing core chain transactions. It’s also a remarkably energy efficient platform that uses Proof-of-Stake to power consensus.
Ardor launched its mainnet on January 1, 2018 after a full year in testnet status. Its core features are largely in place, with the roadmap set to improve things like scalability and snapshotting.
The Blockchain-as-a-Service-platform hosts a few projects of its own, including the Ignis ICO, which was the first child chain on the mainnet.

Huobi Token (HT)

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Huobi is a digital asset exchange platform founded back in 2013, now offering well over 250 different trading pairs. The Huobi Token, meanwhile, is an ERC-20 token that is used on the exchange for discounts on trading fees of up to 50%.
In addition, 20% of the income generated on the Huboi Pro trading platform is used to buy back HT on the open market.
Unlike most buyback programs, the main purpose of Huobi’s program isn’t to reduce the circulating supply of HT. Rather, the HT that is bought back goes into a Huobi Investor Protection Fund, which is used to compensate Huobi users if they lose coins or tokens on the platform, as well as to ensure market stability and protect investor interests.

ZenCash (ZEN)

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ZenCash is yet another privacy coin with a working product in the Top 100, originally launched in the first half of 2017.
What makes ZenCash unique is that it’s the first blockchain with Transport Layer Security (TLS) integration for node encryption, making communication on the ZenCash network both private and highly secure.
Some other interesting parts of the ZenCash product include Tor nodes and built-in chat messaging services. In the future, the ZenCash team will deliver a DAO Treasury Protocol-level Voting System as well as a scalability solution to handle greater transaction volume.

PIVX (PIVX)

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PIVX is another privacy coin that focuses on keeping users and their associated transactions hidden under a cloak of secrecy. The project also tries to keep transactions as fast and fee-less as possible, something not all privacy platforms can boast about.
PIVX launched in January 2016. The coin is currently spendable and delivers the privacy features it promises, though it’s not yet a widely accepted currency by merchants.
Future plans for PIVX include governance functions to engage the community, wallet voting, and its own zPIV decentralized exchange.

Kyber Network (KNC)

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Kyber Network launched their mainnet in Q1 2018, enabling instantaneous and secure inter-token settlements through a Decentralized Liquidity Network.
It’s currently possible to swap ERC-20 tokens on the network with just a few mouse clicks, giving it some basic functionality that is already being used to improve liquidity for Ethereum tokens.
In the future, however, Kyber Network will expand its functionality significantly in an effort to seamlessly connect dapps, DEXes, protocols, payment systems, token teams, investors, fund managers, and digital wallets.

Bancor (BNT)

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Bancor is a liquidity provider that enables users to exchange tokens without the need for a third-party to be involved in financing the transaction.
Gaining liquidity is incredibly important for young cryptocurrency projects, as a lack of liquidity makes it risky for investors to buy a considerable amount of a given coin or token, knowing that it might be exceedingly difficult to sell should they wish to.
Bancor’s technology makes it possible to convert one token to another, so that investors can be confident that they won’t be stuck involuntarily holding a cryptocurrency that they want to sell. This functionality makes the Bancor Liquidity Network one of the most promising working products on this list, and one that has already achieved a good deal of adoption.

Loom Network (LOOM)

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Loom Network is still less than a year old, having been founded in October 2017. However, they have accomplished a lot in that short time span, including having launched numerous tools to help software developers learn how to build blockchain solutions.
The most important of these tools — and Loom’s biggest working product — is the Loom software development kit (SDK).
However, Loom Network is far more than just a simple blockchain coding academy. It is also a production-ready scalability solution for Ethereum, as the Loom developer toolkit helps programmers to build highly scalable dapps which connect to the Ethereum blockchain through special side chains called DappChains.
The project may still be in its infancy, but Loom Network is already contributing more utility to the cryptocurrency ecosystem than the vast majority of other cryptocurrency projects.

Polymath (POLY)

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Polymath wants to be the world’s go-to resource for security tokens on the blockchain. What Ethereum did for tokens, Polymath will do for securities.
The advantages of this are enormous, but the Polymath team likes to point to 24/7 market access, the elimination of middlemen, and trading access for 2 billion unbanked people around the world as the chief benefits of their efforts.
The Polymath platform launched in October 2017, and has since released a new security token every week, attracting investors and traders alike. It’s not as exciting of a project as some other blockchain tech, but it’s delivering on its promises with a working product.

Bibox Token (BIX)

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Bibox is a encrypted digital asset exchange whose primary differentiator from other crypto exchanges is that it integrates AI technology.
The purpose of the AI is to help Bibox’s traders, which it does by providing quantitative computation and analysis of trading activity, personalized risk allocation strategy, speech recognition, and objective analysis of the various coins and tokens listed on the exchange.
The Bibox exchange first launched back in November 2017. It has operation centers in the US, Canada, mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Estonia. BIX token holders receive 20% of the exchange profits, and also get discounts on trading fees, similar to Binance.
https://www.investinblockchain.com/top-cryptocurrencies-working-products/
submitted by arvind1111 to altcoin_news [link] [comments]

Blockchain to fix horribly broken e-mail system like it is today?

E-mail as it is, is horribly broken. Horrendously broken.
It wasn't that many years ago that you could be assured your e-mail reaches whoever you were mailing to. Today it is a mere suggestion, that perhaps this should be delivered to this person, at least for any automated e-mail. This seems to be creeping to manual, organic email as well. Hell, we are seeing even internal e-mails being flagged by spamassassin as spam, organic, human written conversations! In that instance, the spamassassin is also maintained by one of the largest hosting providers in the world...
Hotmail/MS services has been for years (atleast about 4 years now!) been silently dropping email, not all, but some. There's a bit of relief lately, as they have started to favor a bit more marking as spam, rather than silently dropping.
I know, most email users don't see this problem, but those who use email a lot to do their work, and those who need to send automated emails (say, welcome e-mails for a service) this is a big problem. (Disclaimer, for us, our niche of hosting probably causes flagging as well. Our site is blocked by many corporate firewalls for example)
Blockchain to the rescue?
This is an idea i've been toying around with a few years. What if any single e-mail would cost a faction of a cent, and who receives the e-mail, gets paid for it? Now that would solve a lot of problems. I realize there has been some half assed attempts on blockchain based e-mail, but they are about replacing email (never going to happen). Using blockchain to enhance the current experience, with least minimal friction should be the goal, not re-inventing the wheel.
Imagine a say 0.01 cent (0.0001 USD) cost per e-mail. This price would not be cost prohibitive even for free e-mail service providers (Ad revenue etc. should exceed this value), never mind any legit e-mail users. Especially considering you get paid for receiving. So all legit e-mail services would work rather well regardless of the cost. (never mind free email service could profit from this)
Spam however? To send 1 million emails you would need to pay 100$. How many spammers would continue doing so? At least it makes things much harder, not so easy to use a botnet to send your email when you need to include your private key(s) to the botnet, or make some kind of private key management system, makes more complicated.
Small business newsletters? Say you need to send 100k e-mails to legit customers, 10$ is nothing. To human time crafting that newsletter is order (possibly orders) of magnitude greater than that.
Price would also fluctuate as per the market. The most difficult thing would probably be setting the self balancing mechanisms to keep per mail cost sensible. As such, the biggest hurdle in this might not be technical at all.
Technically, how could this work?
Sender sends a TX for e-mail they are sending for recipient. This TX contains message with mail ID, and a segment which can be used with the email contents to unlock the private key for the payment. This way it is verified that recipient mail servers receives and reads the email. Once the recipient server has calculated the private key, they can either TX the received sum to their wallet, or this needs to be formatted so that once the sender has sent it, they cannot recover the private key and double spend (technical hurdle A. For someone who knows their stuff unlikely to be an major hurdle)
Step by step repeat: * Sender checks if recipient has "MailCoin" capability * Sender sends TX to recipient * Sender sends the email to recipient * Recipient notices on mail header (say x-mailcoin-tx: TXID_HERE) that this is a "mailcoin" mail * Recipient checks TX if it has been received * Recipient puts the mail on delivery queue, antispam is instructed of heavy negative score (MTA admin configurable) * Recipient claims the value of the TX (this is the hurdle A). Recipient can only claim the TX value in case they have received the full e-mail. (Question, can this step be pushed even further down the delivery chain, but still remain MTA only level without mail client support?). Most likely solution is that the header contains the encrypted private key, and chain TX contains the key to decrypt that private key to claim the coins, or vice-versa?
Once recipient has the email & payment, they simply mark on their Antispam a automatic lower score and deliver it normally.
E-mail server side we have several components:
Most typical scenario would be the Recipient server works as outgoing as well, with single wallet. So depending on your mail volume, do you send or receive more on that wallet you might never need to worry about the coins (except for value going skyhigh and having like 10k $ worth of "MailCoins").
So perhaps additional components on per use case are needed, or more likely rudimentary scripting capability (ie. "MailCoin" daemon api) to keep the balances in check.
Technical hurdle B: This needs to be super super simple to setup. Or sufficient financial incentive. One would need to develop standard components & configs for exim, postfix, and other MTAs. Infact, make it autogenerate wallet ID etc. and easy to replace or import private keys etc. to put in coins for sending if you need to.
Privacy: On the blockchain you would not see the e-mail contents, only that e-mail likely took place (TX with mail UUID) to recipient. If sender can be deciphered it depends on them if it can be traced who they were. Automatic mixers? :) Recipient can also keep cycling the receive addresses to keep things private if they want to.
The biggest problem i see here, is that if an attacker can deduce the sender and/or recipient, it might to lead to some issues out of the scope of technical solutions. If attacker could read the emails, they would already have accomplished MitM and could just grab all e-mails.
Default implementation should be so, that from recipient address outsider cannot deduce the recipient server nor hostname.
Also, if attacker gains access to your mail with full headers, they could see the TXs in blockchain. MTA might need to scrub mailcoin related headers (yuck, scrubbing headers ....) for paranoid users, but most likely solution is that recipient retransmits those mailcoins as soon as they got the private key for the balance.
Blockchain: Blocks needs to be done every 10seconds or so, it needs to be fast. Preferrably even every 5 seconds, as not to cause any undue delay. Then again, if your application is reliant on receiving email within seconds, one should consider another means for communicating. Imho, email should be considered a little bit like snail mail, but on internet pace: Couple minutes delay is just OK.
Block size given the e-mail volume needs to be fairly large as well, considering the time between blocks. This is technical hurdle C: Hosting the full blockchain. I can easily foresee that this would grow to be terabytes in size. However, any large email operator would have vested interest in ensuring smooth operation of the blockchain, and for them, running a full node would have neglible cost.
(Technical hurdle C) Single email sent using the system could easily have TX contents of 100 bytes + TX headers + block headers etc. Say 100 bytes, and 100 million emails per day: 9.31GiB per day, 3 399GiB per year, 5 years later: 16.60 TiB just for the mail TXs.
Some estimate there is 200+ billion emails per day, but we all know large portion of this is spam. But even at 50 billion emails a day, 100 bytes per mail TX would add to 4.55TiB per day! So optimizing the blockchain size is obviously going to be important. The volume will be obviously much smaller as semi-spam (those daily half opt-in spamvertising from companies you know) will be lower as well. So probs 100+ billion emails per day at 100% adoption.
Blockchain should then be compressed, the whole block. Algorithm probably should favor speed over compression rate, and should be task specifically optimized (needs a simple reference release, where you can just stream the block contents into it and get output as compressed or uncompressed). The more compression there is, the more full nodes will be hosted by smaller operators :)
For large e-mail server clusters there should be central store for the blockchain, but this can be accessed on the system administratoconfig level already. The MTA components will just remotely talk to single full node daemon (so not really different from many implementations in existence right now), instead of each one running locally a full node.
At today's cheapest hosting rates 16.60TiB is roughly around 85-100€ a month. Purchase cost per 8TB drive is around 230€ mark right now, externals are cheaper. Not an issue for any even semi serious mail provider. Not even issue for datahoarder individuals.
However at 100 billion mails per day: 9.09TiB per day added, which is prohibitively large! We should be targeting something like 20bytes per mail final storage spent, or even less.
If it looks like it is going to grow really large, full node needs to have configurable multiple storages, so they can store parts of the blockchain on multiple different devices (ie. individual might choose to have it on 4 different external drives).
Filesystem side optimizations are needed as well, but these are fairly simple, just split into multiple subdirectories by the 10 thousand blocks or so, ie. 1 for blocks 1-10k, 2 for blocks 10 001 to 20k etc. Filesystems get exponentially slower the more files there is per directory. 10k might start to show slowing down, but is not significant yet.
Nodes could also implement secondary compression (compress multiple blocks together), if the blockchain starts to become stupid large. If it starts to become impossible to maintain, we could possibly implement a scrubbing methodology, where very old blocks get the TX contents wiped as they are not necessary anymore. Should not be an issue
Blocks with 10second target generated per annum: 3 153 600 Mails per 10second: 115 740 e-mails per 10second block. Final compressed size (say 20 bytes per mail): 2.20MiB + headers etc. per block Let's start small and allow linear growth to this, say 0.1% per day (36.5% annual) and start from 20k / 512KiB. After 3 years: 41.9k / 1072.64KiB per block, After 10 years: 93k / 2380.8KiB. (2027 we should have HDDs in the size of 30TB and daily max size for chain growth is 19.61TiB)
On the positive side every problem is an opportunity in disguise. If the blockchain is large, once again botnets will have a hard hard time to spamming, they can't host the full blockchain on infected machines. They will need to develop centralized mechanisms on this regard as well. One method i can see is by having TOR client built in, and via .onion domain to anonymize, but this is two way street, security researchers could exploit this (see above about the private keys) as well. Even without botnets, spammers will need to dedicate significant resources to host the full blockchain.
On the flip side, if spammer has also mining operation on the same local area network, they have both the income for mailcoins + full blockchain, and could leverage economies of scale, but this too would increase cost. And after all: This is all about increasing cost for spamming, while having the price in vicinity where real e-mail users, real businesses it is not a significant impact, or may even be an income source
Client side
Zero, Nada changes. No changes to outlook, thunderbird etc. Everything works under the hood at the MTA level. Very easy adoption for the end user. Everything is in the backend, server side.
Economics for users
Cost of operation has above been shown to increase wildly for spammers. But how about normal use cases?
Joe Average: They receive e-mail a lot more than they send, all kinds of order confirmations, invoices, newsletters and other automated e-mail. They will actually earn (however tiny amounts) from using this system. So for the masses, this is a good thing, they will see the earning potentials! which brings us to ....
New business opportunities! I could foresee a business setting up spam traps, the more e-mail you receive the more you earn! So it pays to get your receiver into spam lists. You don't ever need to read these, just confirm receive of them. All of sudden we could see even greater numbers of invalid e-mail addresses in spam lists, making spamming ever more expensive!
Free email services might proof to be extremely profitable, to the point of potential revenue sharing with Joe Averages (and above spamtraps). Because free email is mostly joe averages, they will have greater influx than outgoing. On the caveat, free email needs to have limits, but due to the low cost and potential of earnings, they could implement "mail credits" system, base is like 20 emails a day, but each received email could increase this credit limit. As such, it makes actually sense for free email services to implement this at the very least on the receiving side.
Business mass emailings. A business which has 100k valid e-mails on their database will not have a problem with paying few dozen bucks to have their mass mailing delivered. BUT they will make extra sure the content is good and targeted, something the recipient wants to receive. These will be the biggest spenders on email, apart from spammers.
ISPs, hell they get paid to provide e-mail. And they are on the same spot as free email service providers, they stand to earn more than spend!
Blockchain economics
This is where things might get interesting, there is so much potential.
However, there are several things definitively should not be done:
1 & 2 are easy, just do not mine outside of testnet prior to launch. (If devs get paid by companies, there is conflict of interest as well, but let's not get into that right now)
3: Miners and/or full node maintainers decide what goes on. Probably miners like bitcoin is supposed to.
4: Infinite & preferential supply: No after the launch "contracts" etc. to give coins to preferential parties, it should remain as on the launch unless majority consensus says there will be a change. Proof of stake is gray area imho, but then again also proof of work is the rich gets richer.
Mining: Storage requirement is a blessing in disguise, the massive storages required for this to function means that there will be no central hardware developer who sells all the shovels, without significant other markets. Ie. WD, Seagate, Toshiba the main players.
This means algo needs to be based on the full blockchain being hosted. The hashing needs to be so that GPUs are the king most likely, since almost anything good for CPUs is also doable in GPUs. Eventually someone will likely come with ASIC alternative, but due to masses of data it WILL require high bandwidth, high memory. Nothing like bitcoin currently, where low bandwidth, no memory requirement for the ASIC. There needs to be some expensive commodity components in there (RAM, Storage), and as such GPUs are the most likely candidate, and the bottleneck will not likely be computation, but I/O bandwidth.
Quickly thinking, previous block could include number of blocks to be included on the next for verification, in a highly compressible format. Let's say difficulty is number of blocks to be hashed, or from difficulty you can calculate number of blocks to be included. Previous blocks miner just chooses on random blocks to be included on the next one. Listing 10 series of blocks to be included, which can include series instructions. It could request block #5729375+100, or #357492+500 stepping 5 (every 5th block). Hell the random generator could use last block as seed for the next one to make it deterministic YET random as the emails and TXs change. (WTF, Did i just solve how the algo needs to work?!?) Only blocks which would differentiate is the first few, and obviously Genesis, for which an "empty" block would be what is to be hashed.
Hashing algo could be SHA256 because of the high requirement of streaming data, and most ASIC miners lacking in bandwidth (infact, it could be made compatible with bitcoin, but only those ASICS with higher I/O bandwidth than storage/ram I/O bandwidth is could actually boost the perf)
Different hashable list operations could be (on the block list what to be hashed on the next one): * Single block * Block # + number of blocks * Block # + (number of blocks with stepping) * Block # + number of blocks chosen by random using each hashed block as the seed for choosing next one (makes prefetch, preread, caching not work efficiently) * Number of previous blocks mined (ie. 50 last blocks) * Above but with stepping operator * Above but with choose random next X blocks, with variations based on the last hashed, sum of the hashed * All random pickers would have operation modes for the seed to be used: From hashed sum, the whole block, block contents, block header
These modes would ensure the blocks are there and makes it a lot dependable on variable factors, RAM speed, I/O seek time, I/O bandwidth.
This way we have proof that the miner has access to those blocks in efficient manner and the full blockchain is stored there, even if it is not practically retrievable from him / her over the internet for others to obtain a copy. HOWEVER, due to the data volumes, i think it is given they have fast access, but a miner would probably prefer not to share their blockchain contents to have bandwidth free for their mining, as the deadlines are tight. It could be built into the full node spec that they do not accept new blocks from sources which are not ready to supply any given block, and perhaps even periodic test of this. However, this would be unenforceable if people start running custom coded nodes which disables this, as it is not part of the blockchain calculation. It is not miner's benefit to "waste" precious bandwidth to serve others the vast blockchain, meanwhile it is end users benefit those running full nodes without mining to get them fast. So an equilibrium might be reached, if miners start loosing out because other miners will not share their blocks, they will start offering them, even if prioritized.
At 2MiB blocks, 10 second deadline, a miner would preferentially want the new block within 500ms, which would be barely sufficient time for a round trip across the globe. 500ms for 2MiB is 4MiB/s transfer rate inbound, and when block found you want it out even faster, say 250ms you'll need 8MiB/s burst which very very few have at a home. At more usual 1MiB/s it would take 2secs to submit your new block. On the other hand, if you found the block, you'd have immediate access to begin calcing the next one.
Block verification needs to be fast, and as such the above difficulty setting alone is not sufficient, there needs to be nonce. Just picking the right block is not guarantee there will be match, so traditional !???? nonce needs to be set as well most likely. As such, a lot of maths needs to be done to ensure this algorithm does not have dead ends, yet ensures certain blocks needs to be read as full and stored fully by the miners, just plain hashes of the blocks is not sufficient.
Perhaps it should be block data + nonce, then all the blocks hashes (with nonce, or pre-chosen salt) and to be generated block combined hash with nonce needs to have certain number of zeroes. Needs testing and maths :)
So there are many ways to accomplish proof of storage, we'd need just to figure out the which is the best.
Sidenote, this same algo could potentially be used with different settings for immutable, forever storage of data. Since there is no continuing cost to store data, TX Fee for every message (data) byte should be very high in such a coin.
Supply. Needs to be predictable and easy to understand. It would be preferential the standard mailing out is always 1x MailCoin, albeit coin itself should be practically infinitively divisable, and as such supply needs to be in the trillions eventually. But these things get complicated really fast, so we need to set a schedule.
Current email use is very large, so we should have something in the same magnitude. 8640 blocks per day - so maybe 10 000 coins per block == 86 400 000 new coins per day == 31 536 000 000 new coins per year, halving every 2 years. First halving: 63 072 000 000, Second halving: 94 608 000 000, Third (6 years): 110 376 000 000, but only halving 4 or 5 times to keep some new supply for ever increasing adoption and lost coins.
Got all the way here? :D
Thanks for reading up. Let me know what you think, and let's start a discussion on the feasibility of such a system!
I cannot develop this myself, but i would definitively back an effort up in the ways i can if anyone attempts to do something like this :) And i know i got probably many of the details incorrect
The main point of the methods described above is ease of adoption. Without adoption any system is worthless, and with email, you just cannot replace it like that (see the attempts trying to replace IPv4 with IPv6 ...), but you can enhance it. adoption is very critical in communications systems. (No one would have a phone if no one else had a phone)
Addendum 1: Forgot to add about pricing and markets, read comment here
Addendun 2: Bad actors and voting
submitted by PulsedMedia to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
1. What is Helix?
Helix Cognitive Computing GmbH is a Berlin-based strategic tech company, dedicated to creating a cutting-edge digital ecosystem for interconnecting Everyone and Everything. Helix aims to challenge the status quo by eliminating the need for intermediaries and central authorities, at virtually no cost. For more information, you can visit our website at www.hlx.ai.
2. What problem is Helix solving?
Helix solves problems associated with centralized systems and management. Rather than blindly relying on third-party promises, Helix builds trust by adopting public consensus mechanisms. Thus, it fosters the creation of endless new relationships and businesses that are more ‚direct‘ in nature. Helix enables the use of end-to-end encryption to emit secured data streams, implying that you can fully control which parties are authorized to access your messages or data.
By eliminating intermediaries, Helix enables trustless transactions. It is no longer required to blindly trust any intermediary, whether it is a storage or financial service provider, such as banks. An example includes the creation of Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) that are direct, peer-to-peer and organize their company through digital voting systems. This could be achieved for any organization using the HelixFramework involving no payment fees to Helix. The Helix Consensus Protocol is leveraged to achieve data integrity instead of that (for more information about the HelixTangle, please refer to the Whitepaper on our website: https://www.hlx.ai/whitepaper), i.e., transactions that have reached agreement are serialized to the ledger and are immutable.
3. What makes Helix different to others?
  • The Helix Consensus Protocol (HCP) enables efficient and secure transaction processing at virtually no cost, opposed to legacy blockchains.
  • We are building an application by the name of HelixComposer. Helix assigns great importance to usability and accessibility by providing an interface for people who do not have prior knowledge in cryptocurrencies or computer sciences. The HelixComposer and its graphical user interface provide the middle layer or rather the "interaction layer" between users and the network infrastructure. It enables interactive guidance and tools for designing own decentralized applications and defining smart contracts.
  • We have community service, the HelixFoundation. The HelixFoundation assures the sustainability of the HelixNetwork. The HelixNetwork consists of Nodes (Computers) executing HCP and overlay networks (such as Flash and MAM), that are leveraged to achieve greater scalability and privacy. Further, the HelixFoundation is dedicated to creating educational workshops in the realm of Distributed Ledger Technologies, as we feel a great need of educating interested people and promote young talents.
4. Is Helix an active player in the Blockchain space?
Helix is active in the Distributed Ledger Technologies DLT space with its own Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network protocol – not based on Blockchain principles. The Helix Distributed Ledger is modeled as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), a well-known data structure with excellent properties in terms of scalability.
5. What does decentralization mean?
Decentralization is a term used in network topology to describe the relations between different node types. Centralized systems typically consist of a client-server architecture or slave nodes listening to a coordinator.
https://i.redd.it/8pue5gmq1fg11.png
Decentralization promotes the elimination of unnecessary intermediaries, from the transfer of value between persons and things.
6. What is Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)?
Distributed Ledger Technology encompasses an extensive database consisting of synchronized digital records. Examples of records maintained by DLTs include monetary transactions (e.g., Bitcoin Blockchain), titles and rights to intellectual property, creative content, music, votes, healthcare records, and other sensitive or confidential material.
7. What is a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)?
A Directed Acyclic Graph is a particular type of graph consisting of nodes connected to each other by directed edges. The term ‘Directed’ refers to the idea that edges have directions (like a street map), while ‘Acyclic’ implies that it is not possible to walk from a node X and return to X without going back on a previously used edge (for example no U-turns!).
8. What is a P2P Network?
The architecture of most computer applications on the internet is two-tiered. In a two-tiered architecture, there is a clear division between clients and servers. For example, a typical banking application allows a client to prepare transactions on his/her local machine, and upload the transaction to the bank's centralized server or database. In contrast to the two-tiered architecture of centralized applications, P2P systems equally distribute all aspects of the application across participants, which enables workloads, resources, and values to be shared, and additionally, eliminates the need for peers to trust central authorities.
9. What is “cognition”?
The word cognition derives from the Latin term cognosco which means 'to conceptualize'. Cognition can be defined as the mental act of acquiring and understanding knowledge through senses, experience, and thought.
10. What does “cognitive computing” mean?
Cognitive computers imitate human intelligence by processing data with a set of rules and procedures that can be updated iteratively, based on the value of the incoming data on an asneeded basis. Cognitive computing systems can provide highly accurate descriptions of visual and linguistic data, just like humans. A developing cognitive computer system relies on machine learning strategies, and the scientific study of biological systems, including their cognitive abilities that sustain autonomous, self-driven learning.
11. How is Helix funded today and do you plan an ICO – when?
Currently, Helix is funded by global private and institutional investors. In order to optimize its strategy and operations to the interest of both public (i.e. community) and professional investors, Helix decides to defer its ICO until a better perception in the markets evolves. Helix also intends to evaluate other forms of global coin distribution models where the public audience would be involved in schemes similar to Bounty Programs or Air Drops rather than an ICO. For more detailed information about ICO and Coins, please refer to the Helix ICO & Coins Quick Facts on our website: https://hlx.ai/whitepaper.
12. What is a cryptocurrency after all?
A cryptocurrency is a digital means of payment created and transferred using cryptographic principles, to enable a decentralized and secure payment system.
13. What is HLX?
HLX is the cryptocurrency developed by Helix Cognitive Computing.
14. Why is HLX called "Cognitive Cryptocurrency"?
Every transaction initiated in the HelixTangle results from the process of cognition. Helix uses cognitive scientific methods for purposes of security and validation in the network. For example, in order to approve or validate a transaction, Helix introduces the first ever transaction ledger in the crypto world, which secures transactions using artificial intelligence techniques such as decentralized deep learning, a unique ability to understand, reason and learn about cyber-attacks and threats.
15. Who can use HLX?
HLX is for everyone and everything. You do not need to create a large valued transaction to use the HelixTangle. And since there is no fee, both people and machines can attach their micro-valued transactions to the HelixTangle. Thus, the HelixTangle can be used for machineto-machine settlement, person-to-machine, or machine-to-person payments.
16. Who needs HLX?
The HLX coin is the means of digital exchange in the HelixTangle.
17. How I can mine HLX and how expensive are the transaction fees?
You cannot "mine" the HelixTangle because the Helix protocol does not require intermediaries like miners. The upshot is that the HelixTangle does not waste valuable resources like energy or natural space. Regarding transaction fees, there are none!
18. How are HLX created?
The HLX amount was set in advance by a human council. The sum is set in advance in the code and implemented in the HelixTangle. The Total Coin Supply is calculated from (244 * 244).
19. What is the maximum number of HLX Coins that can be in circulation?
Our maximum amount will be 4,292,493,394,837,504 HLX or 4,292,493,394 mHLX. We also tend to say, in short, but imprecisely: "The total supply is approximately 4,3 petaHLX".
20. What is the difference between mHLX and HLX?
Because the number 4,292,493,394,837,504 HLX is rather inconvenient to use, we count in millions of HLX, calling that unit mHLX (“Mega Helix”).
So the integer of the total coin supply divided by a million results in the total mHLX supply of 4,292,493,394 mHLX.
21. Is the HLX supply infinite?
The HLX coin supply is finite, not infinite. In other words, there are a limited number of HLX coins. In contrast to the Keynesian economic models of most states, the HLX coin supply is not inflationary because no one can “print money” as they need it, and arbitrary coins are never generated.
22. On which exchange platforms for trading HLX will be available?
To be announced after the ICO.
23. Where can I store my HLX?
Once the HLX coins are prepared for transfer to third parties, you can store your HLX inside the HelixWallet software that will be provided in time for the coin transfers.
24. Is Helix' focus on the HLX coin or the Tangle?
First and foremost, Helix is not about the cryptocurrency but rather a protocol for introducing next-generation technology in decentralized distributed computing. It can be said that the cryptocurrency HLX is a necessity to our peer-to-peer network. To be able to tap the full potential of the HelixTangle you need currency. It is not possible to pay with fiat money on the Tangle, and this is not a plan.
25. Is the HelixNetwork better than a Blockchain P2P network?
Yes. Advantages of the HelixNetwork over traditional Blockchain P2P networks include:
  • Cost – Transactions in the Tangle are free of charge and occur at a far higher speed
  • Scalability - Transaction confirmation speed increases linearly with the numbers of tips
  • Decentralization – The Helix Tangle eliminates the need for mining or miners
  • Environmentally Friendly – e.g., No waste of electrical energy
  • Can be used by the emerging machine economy (=IoT and sensors).
26. Why is the Tangle faster than a Blockchain?
New transactions in the Tangle confirm two previous transactions. This makes the Tangle infinitely scalable. Blockchain, on the other hand, sees several transactions packed into one block and these blocks are charged every ten minutes.
27. What is unique about the Tangle?
The HLX coin can be used like any other cryptocurrency. The network protocol was specially designed to connect devices. Companies and people gather data every day with a myriad of devices such as weather sensors or sensors in machinery and healthcare. But almost every piece of information is not used or recycled. The HelixNetwork can tackle it in two ways: It can save data in a way, such that no one other than yourself has access to the data. Moreover, it allows a free transaction between the owner and the one who wants to acquire the data. While we already realize how relevant data is at present, in the future, data will play an even more significant role.
28. How is data stored in the Tangle?
Suppose you want to send a JPG file to someone. First, your picture will be split into several parts and stored in a special field of various Helix transactions.
To send data or communicate with someone on the HelixTangle, you store data in the shared, public version of the Tangle for a limited amount of time. When you, or someone else you authorize, retrieve the data, you are reading the data directly from the HelixTangle in its most current state. The transactions containing your data will not be removed until a snapshot, which is like sending data off into oblivion. After the data has been forgotten, all transaction objects valued at 0 are deleted from the shared, public HelixTangle. If someone would want to read your data from the HelixTangle, that would mean that they must take the precisely same walk through the graph you already did, and only then they would recover the original walk, or message, or data. To simplify this process and stay up to certain privacy requirements, we use a module called Masked Authenticated Messaging. It enables a private, public or restricted encrypted data stream, wherein the restricted scheme, for instance, a channel identifier key and a private key would be required to access the data stream.
29. Is the data stored in the Tangle or does the data only pass through the Tangle?
To be certain of the correctness of your data, in other words, to achieve data integrity, it is mandatory that data is stored in the Tangle. Due to Proof of Work requirements and confirmation times, this could lead to problems in a scenario like a messaging app, where remotely instant data transfer is required. In these cases, it is recommended to use an overlay network like Flash. Flash enables the creation of a multi-signature wallet (that holds a balance predefined by the parties) by two or more parties that trust each other. Transactions in a flash channel are almost instant, with delays only associated to network propagation. When the channel is closed by the parties, the last state of the balances of the parties is synchronized to the Tangle. This procedure eliminates a lot of overhead, supports scalability of the overall system, i.e., the HelixNetwork and enables a tremendous throughput of transactions.
30. How is the data sent?
You can use the interface provided in the official HelixWallet. Using the Interface, you will be able to publish data into the Tangle and restrict access to your needs.
31. What are possible use cases for the HelixTangle?
To give a few examples:
  • Bio data platform - BEAMS (Helix' first spin-off, more information at www.beams.ai)
  • Recording diagnostics
  • Supply Chain Transparency (Manufacturing)
  • Aircraft Maintenance, Repair, and Operations (MRO) Energy & Utilities (The era of microgrids)
  • Public transport (Train, bus)
  • Licensing (Music, movies)
  • Votes (Government)
  • Post-shipping companies (UPS, DHL)
  • Food Industry (Food tracking)
32. Do I need HLX to use the Tangle?
It is not entirely necessary to own HLX to use the Tangle. In the future, you will be able to use the Helix Tangle to store and send your data to other people securely.
33. When will the HelixTangle / Network be available?
The MainNet should be launched in Q1 of 2019.
34. How can I synchronize with Helix' progress?
To keep up to date, you can follow our Social Media Accounts, or get informed through our website and Discord server.
Helix is active on the following Social Media Platforms:
Discord: https://discordapp.com/invite/WztYaYP
Telegram: https://t.me/helixfoundation
Twitter: https://twitter.com/FoundationHelix
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Helix-Foundation-874464419427146/
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/hcc-gmbh/
Medium: https://medium.com/helix-foundation
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTC_SlcpU4V9juYkIN87rKA
Bitcointalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4794230.0
35. What are Helix' intentions regarding Post-Quantum-Cryptography?
Helix’ proof of work is minimal which means the difference of performance between a quantum computer (QC) and a normal computer is minimal (~QC would be roughly 100 times more efficient than an average everyday computer, in blockchain a QC would be 14 billion times more efficient than a high-end mining pool). The difference is great.
Helix uses Schnorr signatures, which are based on the discrete logarithm problem. It achieves high performance and privacy standards and is widely studied and accepted in the industry. The problem is it’s susceptibility to quantum computations (to be more specific Shor’s algorithm implementation on QCS). Although we see the quantum era as a massive threat to existing cryptographic methods, we are sure of the fact that certain attacks, which are currently only theoretically modeled, will need a few more years to become practical enough for sufficient incentive of an adversary. While Helix is determined to come up with solutions for the quantum era, we decide to take a route quite different from our predecessor. Instead of publishing “quantum proof” algorithms (that the scientific community hasn’t had a chance to study yet), now in a time where there is no practical QC attack, seems kind of premature. In a realm, where trust is the highest good, seems premature.
The general idea is to use, what achieves the best performance and security standards today, while initiating the research needed to sustain all of the computing eras that lie ahead.
36. What Helix areas and brands are worth to know?
  • HelixEcosystem - All systems, users, community associated with the HelixTangle
  • HelixTangle - Helix’ initiated P2P network protocol (a next-generation internet)
  • HelixPlatform - The place for developers and community to interact with the HelixTangle
  • HelixWallet - Interface to manage participation in the HelixEcosystem
  • HelixVirtualMachine - Provides secure access to the computing power of the HelixTangle
  • HelixComposer - Toolkit to build your dApps (decentralized use cases)
  • HelixWetware - Helix’ future initiative for a DNA-based molecular storage system
  • HelixFoundation - the Non-Profit arm of Helix to foster HelixEcosystem and R&D
  • HelixCognitiveComputing - the Commercial legal entity of HelixGroup
  • HLX - Helix Cognitive Cryptocurrency
  • BEAMS - A bio data platform powered by the HelixTangle
submitted by HelixFoundation to helixfoundation [link] [comments]

CMV: Lost coins will need to be recycled before bitcoin is accepted en masse. A potential bad actor with market-changing levels of coins causes uncertainty that many will not accept.

So in the title. Note, this is NOT an argument that coins must be recycled as something essential to the integrity of the blockchain or about having sufficient amounts of currency for worldwide economies. Infinite divisibility of bitcoin takes care of that.
I'm talking about trust in the system.
I was talking to someone about bitcoin the other day, answering a bunch of questions. We talked about the million dollar pizza and that dude who threw away a hard drive with millions worth of bitcoin during the price spike last year. The guy made a comment along the lines of "Satoshi is just waiting on China to adopt it as their currency before dumping all his coins and bankrupting them."
He meant it as tongue in cheek, since we had discussed the conspiracy nuts who claim it was invented by the CIA and NSA, and that China is currently running the biggest mining farms - but I think he may have had a point anyways.
If early wallets with thousands of coins are lost, we will never know. The hard drives with the private keys could be decomposing in a landfill, or waiting for the owner to dump them and cause wide market swings. Not knowing whether Satoshi or anyone else can put those coins into play adds uncertainty to the market in a way that will keep bitcoin from lunar heights, maybe even near Earth orbits.
But, by recycling unused coins, that uncertainty vanishes. Some arbitrary amount of time - say a dozen years - could be hard forked into the protocol so that any wallet without an outgoing transaction over a dozen years gets its balance wiped and the coins go back to the miners to get reused.
Active wallets and people using bitcoin for saving longer than the arbitrary limit would simply have to send 1 Satoshi to another address within that dozen-year window to prove active ownership.
TL/DR: Early bitcoin adopters had millions worth of coins that are no longer in circulation. Not knowing whether they are truly lost will cause uncertainty in the value and prevent widespread adoption. Recycling unused coins would fix this.
Edit: please don't down vote without contributing to the discussion. If you think I'm wrong or that it is a stupid idea, tell me why. Down voting means nobody else will see this and I won't have the chance to change my mind on this.
submitted by bobthereddituser to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Lighthouse Watch #1 - List of Lighthouse Projects

Below is the first “Lighthouse Watch,” a list of existing projects using the Lighthouse application to facilitate fundraising. The Lighthouse Keeper Project compiled this list.
I relied on posts to / lighthousekeeper and / lighthouseprojects to populate the list. The list is extensive but not comprehensive.
Some of these projects may have already passed their desired fundraising window. Others are relatively new. I did not go digging through the technical details available for each project to determine a historical order.
The list is organized by percentage of sought funding pledged to date. As you’ll see, only one project has been fully funded. The next closest is currently at 20% funded. There are a few in the single digits. The majority have no pledges to date.
There is no way to reliably analyze causes for low funding. However, the fully funded project was promoted by Lighthouse app developer Vinumeris, and the project at 20% is one of the more developed campaigns. Both are also tech centric.
If you appreciated this effort please consider making a donation to help develop the Lighthouse Keeper Project by sending us BTC at 1Eedd5BmoXA5rzAH6fWm9R8WTVfLTjLx2T

Lighthouse Watch #1

Medic Mobile
In partnership with the BitGive Foundation, Vinumeris is helping to raise money for Medic Mobile. Medic Mobile develops free, open source mobile software for administering health care, with a focus on the needs of developing countries.
Funding Sought: 3.5BTC Pledged: 100%
https://www.np.reddit.com/lighthousekeepecomments/2to0lg/pledge_bitcoins_to_help_develop_health_care_in/
Bitsquare v0.2
We are crowdfunding the next milestone for our Fiat-BTC exchange project. We have already a working alpha version.
Funding Sought: 23.497BTC Pledged: 20%
https://www.np.reddit.com/lighthousekeepecomments/2tpkxy/bitsquare_the_decentralized_bitcoin_exchange/
ZeroNet
ZeroNet is a new way to think of websites. It is decentralized in the way that when you visit a page, you start hosting this page aswell. The owner of the site has the private key witch is required to save any changes.
Funding Sought: 1BTC Pledged: 4%
https://www.np.reddit.com/lighthousekeepecomments/2tvttt/zeronet_peer_to_peer_websites/
Bitcoin Tax
Last year I created a simple website to allow people to figure out tax liabilities in the US for 2013. This project's goal is to fund development for updates to the current tax year and add some great features.
Funding Sought: 4BTC Pledged: 3%
https://www.np.reddit.com/LighthouseProjects/comments/2vry44/my_project_bitcointaxus_update/
CoffeeClan.com
I plan to launch a retail coffee website which primarily accepts bitcoin.
Funding Sought: 0.3219BTC Pledged: 2%
https://www.np.reddit.com/lighthousekeepecomments/2tsh0n/new_project_coffeeclancom/
Podemos
Podemos (http://www.podemos.info) is a new Spanish political party originated in the aftermath of the 2011–12 Spanish protests against inequality and corruption. Made by people for people.
Funding Sought: 1BTC Pledged: 2%
https://www.np.reddit.com/LighthouseProjects/comments/2uwy8m/podemos/
Zazu Wallet
Zazu Wallet is where Coupons.com, meets indoor Google Maps, meets Coinbase checkout for millennial grocery shoppers.
Funding Sought: 100BTC Pledged: 0%
https://www.np.reddit.com/LighthouseProjects/comments/2uydte/zazu_wallet_the_millennial_grocery_shoppers/
Cryptovest
These unsung heroes of the cryptocurrency revolution are in many cases the first point of call for people to learn more about crypto they significantly lower the technical barrier to entry that people face when trying to get involved with crypto currencies.
Funding Sought: 25BTC Pledged: 0%
https://www.np.reddit.com/LighthouseProjects/comments/2v34dcryptovest_is_creating_open_source_software_that/
BitSwa
We are building a Swahili language Bitcoin community consisting of a knowledge base, news desk, wallet and local exchange. We aim to educate, facilitate and accelerate the adoption of Bitcoin amongst the 120 million people for whom Swahili is their native language.
Funding Sought: 75BTC Pledged: 0%
https://www.np.reddit.com/LighthouseProjects/comments/2w2j2s/bitswa_swahili_bitcoin_community/
Tonal Bitcoin to GreenBits
The Tonal number system is an alternative to the decimal and SI ("metric") system, which improves usability by allowing for infinite binary division (note that Bitcoin protocol support is still finite). Instead of counting: one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, etc... In tonal, you would count: an, de, ti, go, su, by, ra, me, ni, ko, hu, vy, la, po, fy, ton, ton-an, etc... This means you get clean number: 0.1 in tonal.
Funding Sought: 5.9999BTC Pledged: 0%
https://www.np.reddit.com/LighthouseProjects/comments/2v313l/adding_tonal_bitcoin_tbc_support_to_greenbits/
TopDown Destruction
Single player windows store game. Will be available with a free demo version and a paid .99c full version.
Funding Sought: 10BTC Pledged: 0%
https://www.np.reddit.com/lighthousekeepecomments/2u1dg4/top_down_destruction/
Convoy of Hope
I have a meeting with a local representative from Convoy of Hope 1 week from today in order to talk with them about bitcoin adoption. I would like to present him with a 1 btc donation on behalf of the bitcoin community in efforts to spearhead their adoption.
Funding Sought: 1BTC Pledged: 0%
https://www.np.reddit.com/lighthousekeepecomments/2txa83/convoy_of_hope_charity_project/
The Stag Night
"The Stag Night" is a short horror film about three childhood friends who reunite at a cabin in the woods for a bachelor party that goes horribly wrong.
Funding Sought: 5BTC Pledged: 0%
https://www.np.reddit.com/lighthousekeepecomments/2tocle/help_fund_our_short_horror_film/
Iran Bitcoin Meetups
We have gathered up a quite good number of people to meet up and talk about bitcoin and the blockchain technology in Iran. We would like to raise 1 Bitcoin ($260 on Jan 25) to cover some fees to have a seminar and invite people from academia and financial institutions to discuss and offer international solutions to fix every day problems people in Iran have regarding online payments and money transfers.
Funding Sought: 1BTC Pledged: 0%
https://www.np.reddit.com/lighthousekeepecomments/2tof15/iran_bitcoin_meetups_fundraising/
Project Germinate
Project Germinate - Documenting the launch of the Illinois Industrial Hemp Research Pilot Program
Funding Sought: 15BTC Pledged: 0%
https://www.np.reddit.com/lighthousekeepecomments/2v8lfk/project_germinate_industrial_hemp/
submitted by knvsh to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[H] (SEA - South East Asia) Steam Games [On-Demand] | Overwatch Origins Edition [ROW] | OtakuMaker Bundles | Indiegala (IG) Bundles [W] Keys / Gems / Paypal

WARNING! This is a Capitalist Store

> Rules:

  1. NO Capsule key or Tour of Duty Ticket. I only take sack of gems so 1 key = 3000 gems & 0.5 key = 1500 gems
  2. Reply here first or comment in my Steam profile before adding me.
  3. 1st priority trade will always go to whoever send me a trade offer. My Steam Trade Offer Steam Trade Offer Link
  4. For Bundles, I will need your mail to send the gift.
  5. Reminder: Keys / Gems that you just purchased will be restricted for 7 days before you can trade it
 

> Paypal Rules:

  1. Only Blue or higher flair may use Paypal. As quoted from SGS Rules "Blue or higher flair may only offer and receive their: Money transferring services such as Bitcoin, Paypal, Skrill, Google Wallet"
  2. Your paypal account must be verified.
  3. Send the money as friends/family or as a gift.
  4. You need to comment below and I will PM you with the payment details.
 
NB: This is a restricted gift which can only be redeemed in these countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam, Brunei Darussalam
Note: 0.25 key = 750 gems | 0.5 key = 1500 gems | 0.75 = 2250 gems

> SEA Region Locked Games

Game Name CS:GO Keys Price TF2 Keys Price Paypal Price (in USD)
Not on the list? Just Ask Me Just Ask Me Just Ask Me
MIDWEEK/WEEKEND DEALS
Tom Clancy’s The Division™ 9.5 CSGO Keys 10.5 TF2 Keys $19
Tom Clancy’s The Division™ Gold Edition 16 CSGO Keys 17.75 TF2 Keys $32
Dead by Daylight 3 CSGO Keys 3.5 TF2 Keys $6
Dead by Daylight Deluxe Edition 4.5 CSGO Keys 5 TF2 Keys $9
Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet Edition 5.5 CSGO Keys 6 TF2 Keys $11
Hearts of Iron IV: Colonel Edition 7 CSGO Keys 7.75 TF2 Keys $14
Special Promotions
Nitroplus Blasterz: Heroines Infinite Duel 5.75 CSGO Keys 6.5 TF2 Keys $11.5
Space Hulk: Deathwing 7 CSGO Keys 7.75 TF2 Keys $14
Pre-Purchase Shiness: The Lightning Kingdom 6 CSGO Keys 6.75 TF2 Keys $12
Pre-Purchase The Walking Dead: A New Frontier 5 CSGO Keys 5.5 TF2 Keys $10
Pre-Purchase Tales of Berseria 17 CSGO Keys 18.75 TF2 Keys $34
NB: This is a restricted gift which can only be redeemed in these countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam, Brunei Darussalam
 

> Overwatch Origins Edition (ROW) - CD-KEY

Current Price is 20 CS:GO Keys / 22 TF2 Keys / $40 Paypal

> OtakuMaker Bundles

Bundles Name Stock Available Gems Paypal
OtakuMaker Meridian4 Bundle #3 2 1000 gems $0.75
OtakuMaker PlayWay Bundle #1 1 1000 gems $0.75
 

> Indiegala Bundles List

Bundles Name Stock Available TF2/CSGO Keys Gems Paypal
Monthly Bundles
[Empty]() 1 1 key 3000 gems $2
Special Bundles
Indiegala Ex Machina 4 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala Reverse Fusion 6 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala Grab The Games 11 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala The Breakout 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Daedalic Mega Bundle 8 1.5 keys 4500 gems $3
Indiegala The Indie Galactic 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Virtual Reality 5 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indie Shindy 4 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala Steamy Summer 6 1 key 3000 gems $2
Indiegala Offspring 5 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indiepolis 8 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Dharker Studio 8 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indie Evolution 1 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Artifex Mundi #2 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Delucius 8 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Action & Romance Anime 10 1 key 3000 gems $2
Indiegala Anuman Interactive #2 15 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indie Mogul 7 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indie Tales 10 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala Indie Breakoff 7 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Spooktacular 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala The Indie Crusade 4 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Battles & Emprises 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indie Zone 1 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hazard Reboot 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Artifex Mundi #3 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Extinction 1 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Monday Bundles
Indiegala Monday Motivation #2 10 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala Monday Motivation #6 8 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Monday Presidential 2 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Monday Motivation #9 3 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Monday Motivation #10 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Monday Motivation #11 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Hump Day Bundles
Indiegala Hump Day #19 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hump Day #20 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hump Day #21 9 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hump Day #22 12 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hump Day #25 4 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hump Day #31 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Friday Special Bundles
Indiegala Friday Special #31 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Friday Special #33 14 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Friday Special #36 9 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Friday Special #38 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Friday POTUS 2 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Want to get notified if there is a new bundle in stock? Subscribe to this discussion
 

> Indiegala Bundles Deposit Box

Slots Name Total Deposit
1 Joseph 0.25 key
2 jefdob 0.25 key
3 kevinkusuma 0.75 key
4 jaweso 0.25 key
Deposit box is a table to store extra payment for Indiegala.
submitted by anecdot11 to SteamGameSwap [link] [comments]

[H] (SEA - South East Asia) Steam Games [On-Demand] | Overwatch Origins Edition [ROW] | OtakuMaker Bundles | Indiegala (IG) Bundles [W] Keys / Gems / Paypal

WARNING! This is a Capitalist Store

> Rules:

  1. NO Capsule key or Tour of Duty Ticket. I only take sack of gems so 1 key = 3000 gems & 0.5 key = 1500 gems
  2. Reply here first or comment in my Steam profile before adding me.
  3. 1st priority trade will always go to whoever send me a trade offer. My Steam Trade Offer Steam Trade Offer Link
  4. For Bundles, I will need your mail to send the gift.
  5. Reminder: Keys / Gems that you just purchased will be restricted for 7 days before you can trade it
 

> Paypal Rules:

  1. Only Blue or higher flair may use Paypal. As quoted from SGS Rules "Blue or higher flair may only offer and receive their: Money transferring services such as Bitcoin, Paypal, Skrill, Google Wallet"
  2. Your paypal account must be verified.
  3. Send the money as friends/family or as a gift.
  4. You need to comment below and I will PM you with the payment details.
 
NB: This is a restricted gift which can only be redeemed in these countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
Note: 0.25 key = 750 gems | 0.5 key = 1500 gems | 0.75 = 2250 gems

> SEA Region Locked Games

Game Name CS:GO Keys Price TF2 Keys Price Paypal Price (in USD)
Not on the list? Just Ask Me Just Ask Me Just Ask Me
MIDWEEK/WEEKEND DEALS
Grand Theft Auto V 8.5 CSGO Keys 9.5 TF2 Keys $17
Just Cause 3 3 CSGO Keys 3.5 TF2 Keys $6
Just Cause 3 XL 4.5 CSGO Keys 5 TF2 Keys $9
Mount & Blade: Warband 1.5 CSGO Keys 1.75 TF2 Keys $3
Mount & Blade Full Collection 4 CSGO Keys 4.5 TF2 Keys $8
Tom Clancy’s The Division™ 9.5 CSGO Keys 10.5 TF2 Keys $19
Tom Clancy’s The Division™ Gold Edition 16 CSGO Keys 17.75 TF2 Keys $32
Dead by Daylight 3 CSGO Keys 3.5 TF2 Keys $6
Dead by Daylight Deluxe Edition 4.5 CSGO Keys 5 TF2 Keys $9
Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet Edition 5.5 CSGO Keys 6 TF2 Keys $11
Hearts of Iron IV: Colonel Edition 7 CSGO Keys 7.75 TF2 Keys $14
Special Promotions
Nitroplus Blasterz: Heroines Infinite Duel 5.75 CSGO Keys 6.5 TF2 Keys $11.5
Pre-Purchase Space Hulk: Deathwing 7 CSGO Keys 7.75 TF2 Keys $14
Pre-Purchase Shiness: The Lightning Kingdom 6 CSGO Keys 6.75 TF2 Keys $12
Pre-Purchase The Walking Dead: A New Frontier 5 CSGO Keys 5.5 TF2 Keys $10
Pre-Purchase Tales of Berseria 17 CSGO Keys 18.75 TF2 Keys $34
NB: This is a restricted gift which can only be redeemed in these countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
 

> Overwatch Origins Edition (ROW) - CD-KEY

Current Price is 20 CS:GO Keys / 22 TF2 Keys / $40 Paypal

> OtakuMaker Bundles

Bundles Name Stock Available Gems Paypal
OtakuMaker Meridian4 Bundle #3 2 1000 gems $0.75
OtakuMaker PlayWay Bundle #1 2 1000 gems $0.75
 

> Indiegala Bundles List

Bundles Name Stock Available TF2/CSGO Keys Gems Paypal
Monthly Bundles
[Empty]() 1 1 key 3000 gems $2
Special Bundles
Indiegala Ex Machina 4 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala Reverse Fusion 6 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala Grab The Games 11 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala The Breakout 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Daedalic Mega Bundle 8 1.5 keys 4500 gems $3
Indiegala The Indie Galactic 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Virtual Reality 5 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indie Shindy 4 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala Steamy Summer 6 1 key 3000 gems $2
Indiegala Offspring 5 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indiepolis 8 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Dharker Studio 8 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indie Evolution 1 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Artifex Mundi #2 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Delucius 8 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Action & Romance Anime 10 1 key 3000 gems $2
Indiegala Anuman Interactive #2 15 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indie Mogul 7 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indie Tales 10 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala Indie Breakoff 7 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Spooktacular 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala The Indie Crusade 4 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Battles & Emprises 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Indie Zone 1 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hazard Reboot 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Artifex Mundi #3 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Extinction 5 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Monday Bundles
Indiegala Monday Motivation #2 10 1 key for 2 bundles 1500 gems $1
Indiegala Monday Motivation #6 8 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Monday Presidential 2 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Monday Motivation #9 3 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Monday Motivation #10 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Monday Motivation #11 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Hump Day Bundles
Indiegala Hump Day #19 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hump Day #20 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hump Day #21 9 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hump Day #22 12 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hump Day #25 4 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Hump Day #31 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Friday Special Bundles
Indiegala Friday Special #31 6 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Friday Special #33 14 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Friday Special #36 9 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Friday Special #38 10 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Indiegala Friday POTUS 2 1 key I return 700 gems 2300 gems $1.5
Want to get notified if there is a new bundle in stock? Subscribe to this discussion
 

> Indiegala Bundles Deposit Box

Slots Name Total Deposit
1 Joseph 0.25 key
2 jefdob 0.25 key
3 kevinkusuma 0.75 key
4 jaweso 0.25 key
Deposit box is a table to store extra payment for Indiegala.
submitted by anecdot11 to SteamGameSwap [link] [comments]

Morpheus Promoting Bitcoin What is Bitcoin for Beginners What Is Bitcoin - How Does Bitcoin Work Bitcoin is Store of Value and Divisible Currency (Here is Why) BitCoin Debunked in 2 Minutes A Scam That Will Collapse

Not infinitely, the amount is stored as a 64-bit integer. Every coin is stored on the Bitcoin Blockchain as a 64-bit integer count of Satoshis. The software defines 1 Bitcoin as 100 million Satoshis. If the Bitcoin community, some time in a future century, decided that the smallest division of a Bitcoin needs to be 100 billion per Bitcoin, this ... How is bitcoin infinitely divisible? [duplicate] Ask Question Asked 6 years, 9 months ago. Active 6 years, 8 months ago. Viewed 14k times 5. 3. This question already has answers here: Why can we have small fractions of a Bitcoin? (2 answers) Closed 6 years ago. I've read that bitcoins are infinitely divisible: Bitcoins can be divided up and trade into as small of pieces as one wants. How is ... However, like Bitcoin, Litecoin is also infinitely divisible. That means that it can theoretically be divided into as many smaller fractions as are necessary. Whereas a dollar can only be divided into 100 pennies as the smallest denomination, in theory Bitcoin and Litecoin could be divided into even smaller sizes so that instead of being limited to one one hundredth of a Bitcoin, you could ... You’ve probably heard that the total number of Bitcoins that will ever exist is 21 million. You’ve been misinformed. As the result of a rounding discrepancy (stemming from the fact that a Bitcoin is only divisible into eight decimals), we are unable to endlessly half the block reward, leaving us with 20,999,999.9796 BTC as the maximum number of Bitcoins that will—or can ever—actually ... Bitcoin Supply (source: amberdata.io) Now that we have established that the maximum Bitcoin supply is just shy of 21 million (by 0.0231 bitcoins), let’s go back to our main story.

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Morpheus Promoting Bitcoin

For more Bitcoin content have a look through my Bitcoin playlist on this channel A MUST HAVE : BITCOIN SAFEST WALLET (hardware, offline) Ledger Nano S (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Dash, Ripple, Strat, PIVX ... Investor in Bitcoin & bitcoin advice for the easiest and least cost way to get started buying bitcoin and investing in bitcoin cryptocurrencies. Follow my ea... The Phoenix Bitcoin Meetup features Morpheus who talks about Promoting Bitcoin and why this is important. Stone Age - Barter Metals Age - Gold and Silver Requires invention of Smelter Industrial ... Bitcoine has been Blocked by The Chinese Government. BitCoin Is Not a limited resource. It is infinitely divisible and therefore infinitely expandable. What Is Bitcoin - How Does Bitcoin Work CoinBase Wallet click Here: 👉🏼 https://www.coinbase.com/join/583bfd50a0e26e5c43349a8a Luno Wallet click here ...

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