Coin Miner Virus – How to Remove Them (Coinminer Malware ...

The i25 binaries are now out in the wild.

I won't link them here, but there's an i25-binaries channel in the main City of Heroes discord that has the download links.
It should now be possible to host an i25 server, though you'll probably still need some very beefy hardware - getting beefier the more players you want to fit onto your server.
Most, if not all, the coders in the main discord are still focused on getting i24 to work. I personally don't mind i25 at all, so it'd be cool if we could get a couple of smart folks working on figuring out how to get it running. The furthest I could get was booting up the authserver - looks like you need an SQL servedb to get past that, and that is woefully beyond my level of expertise (which is next to zero).
(and for people who don't know - i25 is the unofficial name for the custom additions made to the secret server that we found out about last week, while i24 was the last version of live CoH before it was shut down in 2012)
Update 1: Trinexx on the Discord is running a solo server right now. It doesn't seem super demanding for a single player, meaning that within a day or so, anyone will be able to run their own solo server - just gotta wait until someone puts together a step by step guide. As for running a server that other players can connect to, and what hardware configs that will require, we don't quite know yet.
Update 2: Currently it seems as though launching into the game and playing some solo CoH is quite possible. However, every time you access a new door mission or zone, the RAM usage goes up dramatically and that may cause problems. Things might be a little rough for a while, but it works, at least!
Update 3: While the i25 release definitely looks fully functional, I should mention here that no one has done a thorough scan on it for sketchy stuff like bitcoin miners. None of my virus scanners picked up a peep when I unrar'd the archive, so we're probably good there, but just thought you guys should know that the files have not been 100% confirmed to be completely clean of any weird surprises.
Update 4: Seems like the big hurdle for most average joes right now is figuring out how to set up an SQL server. That's the case for me, at least. Hopefully we get a good tutorial soon!
submitted by rainghost to Cityofheroes [link] [comments]

Strong rebound! Bitcoin is up over 20%. How to make this volatility your best ally?

During the day on Wednesday, the decline in the three major stock indexes have triggered trading restrictions, and US stocks will definitely open again in the evening.
Unexpectedly, it came a little later than predicted. At 12:56 pm on March 18, the S & P 500 index fell 7%, triggering the fusing mechanism.
This is the fifth time in the history of US stocks and the fourth time in 10 days. All the gains since President Trump took office have been cleaned up.
Trump takes office: January 20, 2017—present
However, it is weird that at 9:30 on the evening of the US stock market opened, BTC did not follow the downtrend, but was suddenly pulled up at the opening time point. It seems that someone has reversed the operation according to the rule of "US stock melted, BTC fell". The motivation for doing this seems clear: when the market thinks that BTC will fall, many people will be short, and pulling up BTC against the trend can pull short orders. Who is the main trader? Then it naturally depends on who's interest to do this, press the table. In short, it may be because of this operation that the price of BTC and the MACD technical indicators have slightly deviated.
It may be that the US stock market has passed through, letting everyone realize that the external environment is even worse, so the overall market has slowly pulled back since yesterday, led by the two halving currencies DASH and ZEC, and the entire halving sector has begun to rise. .
This law is actually quite obvious. It is simpler to pull the entire market than imagined. There is no need to pull up all currencies, not even BTC, halving the plate or platform currency / public chain / model currency, etc., as long as one of the coins increases The coins in the same sector will soon rise as well. There is no shortage of speculators in the market. They start to gather like wolves smelling blood.
Why is BTC repaired before US stocks?
Judging from the current price performance, if there is a market bubble, the bubbles in US stocks are obviously more than BTC. Although the Federal Reserve and Trump have continuously released big moves, U.S. stocks have no meaning to stop falling. Trump has been rushed and even directed his attention to anti-China sentiment ... Pulling away, U.S. stocks are falling. While bitcoin is currently stabilizing near $ 5,000, US stocks have fallen the previous two days, and bitcoin has not fallen further.
It is believed that before the inflection point of the new cases of the epidemic emerges, the US stock market is unlikely to improve. Even if the crisis is not about to go into a financial crisis, as the saying goes, "the ship is hard to turn around", the repair time of U.S. stocks will be longer than the repair time of Bitcoin. If there is indeed an "invisible hand" on Wednesday, it will lead the trend of BTC and U.S. stocks. If the trend breaks out, it has already been more than half successful.
However, although BTC is supported by existing support, if it falls below the 5000-4500 point again, it may follow a new low in US stocks, which means that BTC still cannot escape the epidemic and bring it to the global capital market. Panic.
Storytelling and listening
Trump's intention to describe "foreign virus" as "Chinese virus" / "China virus" has caused great controversy in the media of the two countries, but the story he wants to tell is actually how the American people are innocent and exposed to exotic viruses Infringement, as a president who strongly protects the American people, not supporting him is equal to not wanting asylum, and will lose his safety and health and well-being ... Many Americans who understand the story will naturally support special features in this round of elections. Lampe's re-election.
The ability to tell stories is a kind of "brainwashing" ability, which was absurd at first, but listen to you and believe it. Top investors are good at telling stories, intermediate investors are good at taking advantage of the trend, and ordinary investors can only listen to stories.
If there is also a person in the currency circle who is good at telling stories and makes you believe that BTC will definitely rise, how will he tell his story?
Story 1. Bitcoin rises for no reason, someone is doing "market value management"
Assume that Bitcoin also has an organization similar to an "industry association", consisting of miners and large households. When Bitcoin suddenly falls sharply due to selling pressure or serial explosion, it cannot fall to the floor like some small currencies, and then lie down Can't move. Industry associations must intervene, as this is in the interest of all large households.
We know that the market value of Bitcoin is more than 100 billion U.S. dollars, which is only equivalent to the market value of a listed company. There is no market as large as everyone thinks, such as US stocks or A shares. At present, there are only 4 million bitcoins in the market. About 20 billion U.S. dollars. If a story is told that everyone can participate in investing in BTC, everyone only needs to give out 1w RMB. Those who invest in the world, that is, 2 million people who listen to the story are enough to increase BTC.
Top 10 BTC mobile address changes
The "BTC Industry Association" leaders behind them sat down and talked, giving everyone a reason and sign of buying. Whether it is foreign exchange, bitcoin will rise, or halving the currency will definitely skyrocket. It is now the best for the bottom. Timing ... As long as the average person understands the story and feels that the logic is credible, that's it. BTC's fall may be an emergency, but BTC's soaring, and think carefully, no matter what seems to be the cause, in fact, it seems that someone is using the market to tell you a good story. Even the ten-year-old cow of the US stock market is nothing more than issuing corporate bonds-corporate executives repurchasing stock-stock prices are rising, physical companies have "market value management", not to mention BTC, which has no business?
Story 2. Maximizing the benefits of miners
The biggest impact of the BTC plunge is that apart from retail quilts and miners shutting down, some miners have been panic for sale. In order to pay for electricity to maintain the operation of mining machines, this wave of decline has also shuffled the mining industry. If the sideways price is around 5000 If the time is long enough, some miners with no coins available for sale will be eliminated, and those old miners who have the latest machines and experienced countless plunges will survive. What will they do to maximize the benefits?
Take advantage of the low-cost crazy acquisition of mining machines, two months before the halving, seize the opportunity to dig out coins within the maximum capacity, hoarding.
Because once in mid-May, due to halving and difficulty adjustment, the mining cost of the latest mining machine will exceed 6,000 US dollars.
Then all the miners called the "Bitcoin Belief", covering up not selling a coin, and waiting until the sellers in the market dried up, the price of the coin started to build a bottom. This process could take up to a month, and the price of the coin would rise steadily (if it does not rise, it must rise ).
When everyone starts to believe that the halving myth comes into play, the currency price will also be pulled to a new height, and the miners will ship at a high level, will the benefits be maximized? Is the fund sufficient in the second half of the year? How many more shocks and fluctuations?
Retailers cannot play the invisible hand in the market. The only thing that can compete with the power of miners is the exchange. But what is the benefit of the exchange? It is everyone like a hamster who has entered the running wheel, buying and selling constantly, short and long, so the shock of the market is no different than creating huge performance for the exchange ...
What do you think of the current market?
After panic selling last week, the market began to gradually rationalize. At present, the stock prices of many high-quality companies are already very cheap, and the stock index has hit new lows in recent years. Therefore, it is normal for the market to usher in a wave of rebound after an oversold.
However, the global epidemic will continue to deteriorate next week, and the rebound will not be able to bear it. The U.S. stocks continue to fall and squeeze the bubble. Maybe it was analyzed before. Before BTC stands firm at 6000, there is still a high probability that the U.S. stocks will be affected. Then wait again. The mysterious power of "market value management" is shot at 9:30 every night. The main power in these markets determines when the bull market will come.
submitted by FmzQuant to u/FmzQuant [link] [comments]

Im at the end of my wits. This is too random for me to diagnose.. please help.

Ok... where to start...
Things my computer is/isnt :
The problem :
What the crash looks like :
Game freezes in the last frame, then screen turns black. You can still hear the sound, as if the game was still going. THIS IS TRUE IN ALL THOSE GAMES, and what makes me think its related. Sometimes theres an error, and when you click OK, you are back on desktop, sometimes there isnt and you need to kill the process with Task Manager to unfreeze the PC. Nvidia driver will say it crashed and has restarted, from the task bar. And sometimes, if you restart the game after a crash like that, and then get another crash, this time the game will freeze, turn to black, beep twice, and restart the whole PC. At the moment of crash all temperatures are normal, memory usage is insignificant,
When it crashes :
What does Windows say it is :
In the EVENT VIEWER, i get the following : The description for Event ID 13 from source nvlddmkm cannot be found. and also \Device\UVMLiteProcess1 NVRM: Graphics TEX Exception on (GPC 1, TPC 1): TEX NACK / Page Fault
What i did so far to try and fix it
First off, ive been sifting through all sorts of forums for the past 3 days, googling every single erro crash scenario. This is what ive tried so far :
So Yeah...
I have tested more games. Games like Spec Ops, Hard Reset, Firewatch, Condemned, i ran them all on 4k DSR with maxed AA and AF, AO, and everything else i could throw at them, and have not crashed....though.. i only played them for a little while, not for hours like those other games. So its odd as fuck, cause some games seem to crash more often when the stress is higher, but when other games are stressed, they dont crash at all. Sure, a hardware fault has crossed my mind, but i definitely cant afford to replace anything at this point in time, and if it is a hardware fault, its a damn odd one. I never had crashes this bad before, and when i did, i resolved them quickly with Google. The only crash i had before, was Rust, but i thought that was normal, since Rust usually crashes for a lot of people. Then i bought Prey and Dishonored, and realized that maybe this is a problem i always had, but never came forward cause i wasnt playing any really demanding games at the time, aside from Rust. So now i dont know what to think, when thinking what started all this.
Desperate theory?
Could a specific component of the GPU, like a SLI controller, or a shader thingy, or a random thingy be responsible ? Cause it seems like its only crashing in super new games. Could a new feature be triggering some broken component on the GPU, or some odd extension only used in new games ? Im at the end of me here, i dont know what else to try. Reinstalling windows for 3-4 crashing games seems like overkill, especially since it would inconvenience me greatly due to the work stuff i have on it. Thanks for your help.
submitted by MadMaxGamer to buildapc [link] [comments]

What is a Cryptocurrency Wallet?

What is a Cryptocurrency Wallet?
Use this straightforward guide to learn what a cryptocurrency wallet is, how they work and discover which ones are the best on the market.
A cryptocurrency wallet is a software program that stores private and public keys and interacts with various blockchain to enable users to send and receive digital currency and monitor their balance. If you want to use Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency, you will need to have a digital wallet.
How do they work?
Millions of people use cryptocurrency wallets, but there is considerable misunderstanding about how they work. Unlike traditional ‘pocket’ wallets, digital wallets don’t store currency. In fact, currencies don’t get stored in any single location or exist anywhere in any physical form. All that exists are records of transactions stored on the blockchain.
Cryptocurrency wallets are software programs that store your public and private keys and interface with various blockchain so users can monitor their balance, send money and conduct other operations. When a person sends you bitcoins or any other type of digital currency, they are essentially signing off ownership of the coins to your wallet’s address. To be able to spend those coins and unlock the funds, the private key stored in your wallet must match the public address the currency is assigned to. If public and private keys match, the balance in your digital wallet will increase, and the senders will decrease accordingly. There is no actual exchange of real coins. The transaction is signified merely by a transaction record on the blockchain and a change in balance in your cryptocurrency wallet.
What are the different types of Cryptocurrencywallets?
There are several types of wallets that provide different ways to store and access your digital currency. Wallets can be broken down into three distinct categories – software, hardware, and paper. Software wallets can be a desktop, mobile or online.
Are Cryptocurrency wallets secure?
Wallets are secure to varying degrees. The level of security depends on the type of wallet you use (desktop, mobile, online, paper, hardware) and the service provider. A web server is an intrinsically riskier environment to keep your currency compared to offline. Online wallets can expose users to possible vulnerabilities in the wallet platform which can be exploited by hackers to steal your funds. Offline wallets, on the other hand, cannot be hacked because they simply aren’t connected to an online network and don’t rely on a third party for security.
Although online wallets have proven the most vulnerable and prone to hacking attacks, diligent security precautions need to be implemented and followed when using any wallet. Remember that no matter which wallet you use, losing your private keys will lead you to lose your money. Similarly, if your wallet gets hacked, or you send money to a scammer, there is no way to reclaim lost currency or reverse the transaction. You must take precautions and be very careful!
Although Bitcoin is by far the most well-known and popular digital currency, hundreds of newcryptocurrencies (referred to as altcoins) have emerged, each with distinctive ecosystems and infrastructure. If you’re interested in using a variety of cryptocurrencies, the good news is, you don’t need set up a separate wallet for each currency. Instead of using a cryptocurrency wallet that supports a single currency, it may be more convenient to set up a multi-currency wallet which enables you to use several currencies from the same wallet.
Are there any transaction fees?
There is no straightforward answer here.
In general, transaction fees are a tiny fraction of traditional bank fees. Sometimes fees need to be paid for certain types of transactions to network miners as a processing fee, while some transactions don’t have any fee at all. It’s also possible to set your own fee. As a guide, the median transaction size of 226 bytes would result in a fee of 18,080 satoshis or $0.12. In some cases, if you choose to set a low fee, your transaction may get low priority, and you might have to wait hours or even days for the transaction to get confirmed. If you need your transaction completed and confirmed promptly, then you might need to increase the amount you’re willing to pay. Whatever wallet you end up using, transaction fees are not something you should worry about. You will either pay minuscule transaction fees, choose your own fees or pay no fees at all. A definite improvement from the past!
Are cryptocurrency wallets anonymous?
Kind of, but not really. Wallets are pseudonymous. While wallets aren’t tied to the actual identity of a user, all transactions are stored publicly and permanently on the blockchain. Your name or personal street address won’t be there, but data like your wallet address could be traced to your identity in a number of ways. While there are efforts underway to make anonymity and privacy easier to achieve, there are obvious downsides to full anonymity. Check out the DarkWallet project that is looking to beef up privacy and anonymity through stealth addresses and coin mixing.
Which Cryptocurrency wallet is the best?
There is an ever-growing list of options. Before picking a wallet, you should, however, consider how you intend to use it.
Bread Wallet
Bread Wallet is a simple mobile Bitcoin digital wallet that makes sending bitcoins as easy as sending an email. The wallet can be downloaded from the App Store or Google Play. Bread Wallet offers a standalone client, so there is no server to use when sending or receiving bitcoins. That means users can access their money and are in full control of their funds at all times. Overall, Bread Wallet’s clean interface, lightweight design and commitment to continually improve security, make the application safe, fast and a pleasure to use for both beginners and experienced users alike.
Advanced users searching for a Bitcoin mobile digital wallet, should look no further than mycelium. The Mycelium mobile wallet allows iPhone and Android users to send and receive bitcoins and keep complete control over bitcoins. No third party can freeze or lose your funds! With enterprise-level security superior to most other apps and features like cold storage and encrypted PDF backups, an integrated QR-code scanner, a local trading marketplace and secure chat amongst others, you can understand why Mycelium has long been regarded as one of the best wallets on the market.
Exodus is a relatively new and unknown digital wallet that is currently only available on the desktop. It enables the storage and trading of Bitcoin, Ether, Litecoins, Dogecoins and Dash through an incredibly easy to use, intuitive and beautiful interface. Exodus also offers a very simple guide to backup your wallet. One of the great things about Exodus is that it has a built-in shapeshift exchange that allows users to trade altcoins for bitcoins and vice versa without leaving the wallet.
Created by Bitpay, Copay is one of the best digital wallets on the market. If you’re looking for convenience, Copay is easily accessed through a user-friendly interface on desktop, mobile or online. One of the best things about Copay is that it’s a multi-signature wallet so friends or business partners can share funds. Overall, Copay has something for everyone. It’s simple enough for entry-level users but has plenty of additional geeky features that will impress more experienced players as well.
Jaxx is a multi-currency Ether, Ether Classic, Dash, DAO, Litecoin, REP, Zcash, Rootstock, Bitcoin wallet and user interface. Jaxx has been designed to deliver a smooth Bitcoin and Ethereum experience. It is available on a variety of platforms and devices (Windows, Linux, Chrome, Firefox, OSX, Android mobile & tablet, iOS mobile & tablet) and connects with websites through Firefox and Chrome extensions. Jaxx allows in wallet conversion between Bitcoin, Ether and DAO tokens via Shapeshift and the import of Ethereum paper wallets. With an array of features and the continual integration of new currencies, Jaxx is an excellent choice for those who require a multi-currency wallet.
Armory is an open source Bitcoin desktop wallet perfect for experienced users that place emphasis on security. Some of Armory’s features include cold storage, multi-signature transactions, one-time printable backups, multiple wallets interface, GPU-resistant wallet encryption, key importing, key sweeping and more. Although Armory takes a little while to understand and use to it’s full potential, it’s a great option for more tech-savvy bitcoiners looking to keep their funds safe and secure.
Trezor is a hardware Bitcoin wallet that is ideal for storing large amounts of bitcoins. Trezor cannot be infected by malware and never exposes your private keys which make it as safe as holding traditional paper money. Trezor is open source and transparent, with all technical decisions benefiting from wider community consultation. It’s easy to use, has an intuitive interface and is Windows, OS X and Linux friendly. One of the few downsides of the Trezor wallet is that it must be with you to send bitcoins. This, therefore, makes Trezor best for inactive savers, investors or people who want to keep large amounts of Bitcoin highly secure.
Ledger Nano
The Ledger Wallet Nano is a new hierarchical deterministic multisig hardware wallet for bitcoin users that aims to eliminate a number of attack vectors through the use of a second security layer. This tech-heavy description does not mean much to the average consumer, though, which is why I am going to explain it in plain language, describing what makes the Ledger Wallet Nano tick. In terms of hardware, the Ledger Wallet Nano is a compact USB device based on a smart card. It is roughly the size of a small flash drive, measuring 39 x 13 x 4mm (1.53 x 0.51 x 0.16in) and weighing in at just 5.9g.
Green Address
Green Address is a user-friendly Bitcoin wallet that’s an excellent choice for beginners. Green Address is accessible via desktop, online or mobile with apps available for Chrome, iOS, and Android. Features include multi-signature addresses & two-factor authentications for enhanced security, paper wallet backup, and instant transaction confirmation. A downside is that Green Address is required to approve all payments, so you do not have full control over your spending
Blockchain (dot) info
Blockchain is one of the most popular Bitcoin wallets. Accessing this wallet can be done from any browser or smartphone. provides two different additional layers. For the browser version, users can enable two-factor authentication, while mobile users can activate a pin code requirement every time the wallet application is opened. Although your wallet will be stored online and all transactions will need to go through the company’s servers, does not have access to your private keys. Overall, this is a well-established company that is trusted throughout the Bitcoin community and makes for a solid wallet to keep your currency.
submitted by Tokenberry to NewbieZone [link] [comments]

New to /r/Hashgraph? Please read this post first! [FAQ & Resource Links]

Welcome to the official Hashgraph subreddit. Hashgraph is a data structure and consensus algorithm that is faster, fairer, and more secure than blockchain.
Please find our FAQ and a directory of resources below.
1: How does it work?
Hashgraph uses two special techniques (1) Gossip about Gossip and (2) Virtual Voting to achieve fast, fair and secure consensus.
Gossip is a well-known computer science term, which can be defined as calling any random node and telling that node everything you know, that it does not know. In distributed ledger technology, the “baseline” or minimum bandwidth required is that the transactions go to every node. A gossip protocol can achieve this transfer of information / syncing process exponentially fast. Gossip about Gossip refers to attaching a small additional amount of information to this Gossip / transaction payload, which are two hashes containing the last two people talked to (hence, gossiping about the information gossiped). Using this information, a Hashgraph can be built and constantly updated as more information is gossiped, on each node.
Once the Hashgraph is built, it is extremely easy to know what a node would vote, because we know what each node knows, and when they knew it. We now can use this data as an input to a 30 year old voting algorithm (which have strong security guarantees, maths proofs of being Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerant but typically lack the speed necessary for real world implementation), and know which transactions have reached consensus quickly.
The result of using this methodology is that we get the benefit of 30 year old voting algorithms which have have strong math proofs of being Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerant (meaning that we know when we will achieve consensus, guaranteed, and our math proofs make no assumptions about the speed of the internet, due to firewalls, ddos attacks, viruses or botnets), speed (due to use of a gossip protocol) and fair ordering and time stamping on every event.
2: How is Hashgraph different?
There are five different approaches to reaching distributed consensus. Firstly we have Proof-of-Work, which started with Bitcoin. The second is leader-based systems like PBFT, Raft, and Paxos. Then there is economy-based, commonly referred to as Proof-of-Stake, where forgers stake cryptocurrency on votes in order to reach consensus. Then, there’s voting-based which are too slow to be used in real systems. Finally there’s Hashgraph, which uses virtual voting and is incredibly efficient because it does not actually send any votes over the internet.
3: What is bank-grade consensus?
Hashgraph is the only bank-grade consensus algorithm as a result of the following properties: Mathematical proof of asynchronous Byzantine fault tolerance; Resilience to DDoS attacks, network partitions, sybil attacks and firewall/virus attacks; and Mathematical proof of fairness of ordering, access, and timestamps.
4: Is there a cryptocurrency?
Hashgraph is not currently available on a public network / ledger so there is no cryptocurrency at this time. We have not yet announced our plans for a public ledger, but please stay tuned for updates.
5: Why is Hashgraph patented?
Hashgraph is currently only available on a private network so its patents allow for market advantage in enterprise / commercial applications. This is not designed to stifle creativity or expansion of the emerging ecosystem, but to protect technological innovations that took years to develop.
6: How do I use Hashgraph?
If you want to use Hashgraph on a private network, you can apply for an enterprise / commercial license by contacting Swirlds.
7: What is the different between Hashgraph and Swirlds?
Hashgraph is the technology. Swirlds is the organization responsible for handling the licensing of Hashgraph.
8: Is Hashgraph better than blockchain?
The pitching of Hashgraph against Blockchain is a sensationalist angle that we do not endorse. While we do have some advantages over Blockchain based consensus, our intention is not at all to diminish the significance of Blockchain technology. We consider Blockchain to be like a capable older brother who graciously paved the way by bringing the power of Distributed Ledger Technology to the light of day, for which we are very grateful. Articles, talks etc pitching us against Blockchain are not written by us, nor are we generally consulted before articles go live. There is no reason that blockchain and Hashgraph couldn’t live together. While it is true that we have won some enterprise use cases against Blockchain based solutions (CULedger & Swirlds launch Hashgraph technology partnership), blockchain has a massive network effect which we definitely admire and respect. We respect and value the work and efforts of all developers and scientists in the Blockchain space. We also understand that Hashgraph is less well-known and nascent. That being said, every great movement has to start from somewhere and if you are reading this, it has potentially (hopefully) started with you too.
9: How can I get involved?
If you want to contact us for support or participation, please reach out to [email protected]. You can find more informational resources on the website homepage, where you can also sign up to our mailing list and/or follow us on social media. The Hashgraph Community Telegram Channel is also a great place to ask technical questions.
10: How fast is Hashgraph?
It’s fast. Very fast. But you don’t have to trust us. We will release formal performance results soon, and at the same time provide the software you can use to validate the results for yourself.
Simply providing the number of transactions per second is meaningless unless all of the details are provided as well: number of nodes, bandwidth, latency, CPU, size of transaction, etc. Our performance results will provide the details needed to characterize results for a range of settings.
11: Does Hashgraph have transaction fees?
Instead of some small subset of participants being responsible for validating transactions and adding to the ledger (like miners in blockchain), all nodes contribute. Consequently, there is less need to incentivize through fees. Transaction fees are therefore expected to be very small, thereby making Hashgraph viable for micropayments.
12: What are the major security risks of distributed ledger technologies?
For a DLT, the security risks are an attacker:
13: Where do the main security risks originate?
The security risks specific to DLTs come from both internal and external attacks. An internal threat can include a computer in the network that is infected with a virus or worm other malware, or is run by a malicious party, or honest corporation that has a malicious insider with access to the computer.
An external threat can include a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, where the attacker floods one or more computers with enough messages to temporarily shut it down. Another external attack is if an adversary owns a firewall surrounding some of the nodes in the network, which it can use to block or delay messages.
14: What is Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)?
There are a variety of consensus algorithms and each offer different features and characteristics. A consensus algorithm is characterized as BFT if it guarantees a moment in time where all participants reach consensus, know that consensus has been reached, and they are never wrong. This can be contrasted with consensus algorithms based on PoW, where participants slowly become more and more confident that consensus is near, but may still not be correct. There are different levels of BFT, depending on the sorts of assumptions made about the network and transmission of messages. The strongest type of BFT is asynchronous BFT. Hashgraph is unique in supporting highest degree of BFT while still being very efficient.
15: What is Asynchronous BFT?
When a system is asynchronous BFT, it allows for malicious actors controlling the network, deleting or slowing down messages of their choosing. The only assumption made is that less than ⅓ are attackers, and some messages eventually get transmitted over the internet. Some systems are partially asynchronous, which are secure only if the attackers do not have too much power and do not manipulate the timing of messages too much. For instance, a partially asynchronous system could prove Byzantine under the assumption that messages get passed over the internet in ten seconds. This assumption ignores the reality of botnets, distributed denial of service attacks, and malicious firewalls. If unable to meet the criteria of asynchronous BFT, it is preferable that they be asynchronous less-than-Byzantine, rather than less-than-asynchronous Byzantine. In other words, they should prove they are somewhat secure in the real world instead of proving they are very secure in a fantasy world.
16: How does Hashgraph prevent Sybil attacks?
A Sybil attack refers to an attempt to compromise a network through the creation of large numbers of spurious identities – these are directed to act in collusion to inappropriately impact the network. Sybil attacks are a particular concern for public DLTs in which no special permissions are required to become a node. Protection against Sybil attacks can be provided by appropriately allocating and weighting votes of different nodes. Hashgraph can be deployed in a number of different vote weighting models, e.g. votes could be weighted by a node’s stake in some currency, or its ability to perform some work, or its willingness to risk some value. A more detailed explanation can be found at here.
17: How does Hashgraph prevent DDoS attacks?
A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack occurs when it is possible to disrupt the flow of transactions for the entire network by targeting a single or a few computers. Different DLTs vary in their vulnerability to DDoS. Leader-based systems give special permissions to a particular node and are highly susceptible because the current leader is a bottleneck and is vulnerable to being targeted in the DDoS. Even if the role of the leader rotates amongst nodes, other nodes necessarily know the current leader, and so could direct a DDoS. PoW systems are resilient to DDoS because it’s difficult to predict which miner will solve the inverse hash and publish a block. Consequently, the attacker would not know which miner should be targeted. Hashgraph doesn’t use PoW, but neither does it have a Leader. So Hashgraph provides DDoS resilience without the inefficiency and cost of PoW.
18: What is fairness?
Fairness refers to the ability of DLTs to prevent the ordering of transactions from being unduly manipulated. Hashgraph is fair in that it serializes all transactions with cryptographic timestamping, unlike blockchains where miners determine the order in which transactions are placed within each block. In certain use cases, the transaction order is important. Consider for instance two different people purchasing shares in a stock – the first order to go through will likely get a cheaper price. Hashgraph orders transactions according to the median timestamp of when the population of nodes received them – thereby ensuring they are recorded fairly.
19: How can I get started developing applications?
Download the SDK and follow the instructions detailed included in the /docs folder, or visit our online version here.
In order to develop a commercial application on Hashgraph using the Swirlds SDK, you will need to contact Swirlds to discuss the appropriate licensing that is required. However, you do not need to ask for permission before downloading the SDK to build small scale, non-commercial applications for personal use and experiment.
20: Why is the platform and SDK written in Java?
Java is a general purpose programming language with a large open source ecosystem and resources for developer support. There are also advantageous security measures in the Java development environment, such as sandboxing, that will allow the platform in the future to run untrusted applications, while protecting the user and their hard drive from those applications.
21: Can I develop applications in other languages?
In addition to Java, we also want the option for developers who would like to develop in other programming languages, such as Python or JavaScript. This is part of the Hashgraph development roadmap.
22: Is there a Developer Chat?
Yes, currently it is on Telegram, but will be likely moving to a new place, as our community sees fit.
Main links:
Whitepapers / Technical Documents:
Articles & News:
Hashgraph Social Links:
For general enquiries please email: [email protected]
submitted by ollybolton to hashgraph [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Is a Ruse to Create a Global Cashless Society

Previously, I've warned of the threat trivially pwned browser JavaScript crypto poses to Bitcoin wallet users. I've also warned of hopelessly insecure mobile phone hardware, which is compromised at the base band layer.
Here's my question to you, /bitcoin: If the very hardware you use to manage your bitcoins is unacceptably opaque, and hence insecure, how can anyone ever use Bitcoin privately or safely out of the view of the State?
There is literally nothing in the world that can be done about this situation short of manufacturing your own hardware from scratch in a controlled environment, which is absolutely impossible to achieve at scale. The result: financial privacy comes to an end.
Now, if I were the government, how would I try to secretly coopt Bitcoin? You will note that if not done in secret, coopting cannot be done at all. My likely first step then would be identifying the most influential actors in Bitcoin, and probing for vulnerabilities. The conclusion I would reach is that sidechains, which give miners much higher leverage over Bitcoin innovation would by extension give the State power over the future direction of Bitcoin itself.
Large Bitcoin miners are trivial to identify in a surveillance state by their enormous grid footprint. Large power consumption, internet traffic, and social connections will make it easy for the State to track down large Bitcoin mining facilities.
Since mining facilities must voluntarily mine sidechains to keep them secure, the State, after tracking them down, could decide which sidechains are viable and which sidechains aren't by means of force.
Since these same miners are easily targeted by the State, the State gains extremely high leverage over sidechain based systems. With this in mind:
  1. Plenty of illicit activities, like blockchain virus command and control ops for one, aren't politically palatable to mine on a specialized sidechain.
  2. As for what is politically palatable, this can change. What is or isn't politically tolerable one year from now is by definition decided by the whims of a politician one year from now. This cannot be accurately predicted. A politician coud decide that the open source Bitcoin transfer mechanism itself poses a problem to "the children" due to the complete lack of KYC/AML regulations on blockchain transfers which facilitates human trafficking.
  3. Merge mined sidechains can't be secured by a minority of large mining facilities. If the majority of large miners are forced to VETO a particular sidechain, then that sidechain is by definition insecure and subsequently dies along with its innovations. Forking the innovation to a different sidechain wouldn't work if the mining facilities required for protection have already been coopted.
As for how this undermines users, consider the example of the "ultimate" but as of now fictional "Bitcoin 2.0" sidechain. In addition to being a great store of value on the surface, transferring your BTC to a wallet supporting this 2.0 sidechain gives you more options for what you can do with your money.
The real issue comes when this sidechain gains popularity. With lots more people happily storing their bitcoins on it, the $STATE summons the world's top ten largest mining facilities with something along these lines:
We have identified child trafficking activity occuring on sidechain 2.0. As discussed, facilitating human trafficking is a crime against humanity. You are to immediately and with no delay cease and decist your material support of this criminal enterprise.
This type of extortion can be levied upon all large mining facilities without exception. But with sidechains, those facilities gain a new power: they get to decide which features Bitcoin users have access to.
Users with BTC on a sidechain are effectively held hostage by the State, who in commandeering mining facilities demands an end to the blockchain transfer mechanism as is, and demands every user transferring more than $X be linked to a physical address. If the demands are not met, $MINING_FACILITY will no longer secure the sidechain, leaving all users' two-way pegged funds at risk.
In summation, the Bitcoin system of the future looks far too close for comfort to a terrible dystopia:
In conclusion, Bitcoin could very well be a ruse to create a global cashless society. Convince me otherwise.
submitted by 0biw4n to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

An Enormous List of Thing I'd Like to See in Watch Dogs 2 (if it happens)

These aren't in order of importance, just sorted by categories. Some ideas just have a few examples and can be expanded upon. This list is mostly gameplay changes; the story, characters, graphics, etc. aren't covered here. This list is massive, so if a category is boring the hell out of you, feel free to skip it but please check out the next one; not all of them contain huge changes.
As for the player's inventory:
This is a big change, likely the biggest so far. Remove the current crime, gang hideout, and convoy systems entirely. Introduce the CtOS Alert. The CtOS Alert presents itself like a crime, giving only a location on the map. This location isn't preset like crimes; it can be in a ton of places, be different sizes, and move around. Arriving at the location, you will have to use your eyes and cameras to find out what kind of alert it is.
-A few people in the area have crime/victim probabilities. This is Chicago (or whatever city the sequel is in), more than one person per-block has a grudge for or from another person. The probabilities react to their proximity to a victim, if they pull out a firearm, or if they start shit-talking someone. The player will have to keep track of 2-3 people to see which one the perpetrator is. This one is inspired by Person of Interest.
And that's that. CtOS Alerts would be rarer than crimes are now, but not too rare, and there may be a few available at one time.
Neutral or volatile reputation could lead to a a mix of these, or they just won't occur.
Coffee Shops: Coffee (Focus and sprint speed boost until you drain the focus or sprint for a total minute), Bagel (Damage threshold boost until damage is taken)
Fast Food: Soda (Same as coffee but diminished effect), Burger (Damage threshold boost until damage is taken, sprint speed nerf until you sprint for a total of 1 minute)
I'm not trying to turn this into a survival game here, there's no (No) [NO] {NO} need for some stupid hunger system. But the ability to sit down and eat would be appreciated.
Add. More. Craftables. Seriously, 3 explosives, some pills, and a radio? How about:
By multiplayer, I mean invasions, not the other gametypes.
These changes, in my opinion, would reward players for hiding in plain sight and staying on the move instead of hiding behind dumpsters, since that would be a dead giveaway.
These are a few things, large and small, that I would be pleased to see in a sequel to Watch_Dogs. Of course more changes could and should be made, but overall I think these are pretty good. Let me know in the comments if these ideas are excellent, could be tweaked, or if I should never impose my horrible opinions on this forum for the remainder of my life. Also, please point out any typos, since I probably missed a few and I may elect to x-post this to /gaming or /games after reviewing their post guidelines.
Thanks for reading!
submitted by cdawgtv2 to watch_dogs [link] [comments]

Just the weirdest, most inexplicable sht I've ever dealt with in a rig. [PC, blackscreening, semi-random]

Hi all.
I'm utterly, utterly baffled. Stumped. Bemused. Befuddled. Bamboozled. I cannot explain this. At all.
I crash on my desktop, often (but not always) while opening Chrome. Crash can be 1m after boot, or 4 hours after boot. Machine blackscreens, stops responding, doesn't send anything to the monitor or respond to scroll lock or capslock.
Fairly standard - but I do NOT crash if there's a game running. Literally can run GW2 for as long as I need to, or warframe, or Titanfall, and it's solid as a rock.
I've arranged an RMA for my GPU as it's the most recent addition to the sytem (25 Feb 2014) and it was blackscreening on wake (but with a responsive PC/keyboard and the media server was still up), but I'm stumped. I've never seen anything like this.
What causes a rig to blackscreen when browsing or opening explorer, but doesn't have ANY problems when it's running high end games at max rez?
2500k @ 4.5GHz
R9 290 4GB Factory OC
700W Seasoninc PSU
1 SSD (OS + Games)
2 HDD (Stuff)
Midrange Gigabyte mobo, nothign special
8GB DDR3 @ 1600MHz
Win 8 64 Bit
etc etc.
EDIT: Memtest results are in. No problems found. Ran for 8 hours, zero errors.
Ran MS Defender, no viruses found.
Instaleld Avast, turned off MS Defender, full scan, no viruses found.
Files Detected: 11 D:\Media\Downloads\cgminer-3.8.5-windows.7z (PUP.Optional.Cgminer) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully. D:\Media\Downloads\DuplicateCleaner_setup (1).exe (PUP.Optional.OpenCandy) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully. D:\Media\Downloads\DuplicateCleaner_setup.exe (PUP.Optional.OpenCandy) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully. D:\Media\Downloads\FileBot-setup.exe (PUP.Optional.OpenCandy) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully. D:\Media\Downloads\ (PUP.BitCoinMiner) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully. D:\Media\Downloads\ (Riskware.BitcoinMiner) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully. D:\Media\Downloads\cgminer-3.8.5-windows\cgminer.exe (PUP.Optional.Cgminer) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully. D:\Media\Downloads\cpuminer\minerd.exe (Riskware.BitcoinMiner) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully. D:\Media\Downloads\LTC_minerz\poclbm.exe (Trojan.BtcMiner.TS) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully. D:\Media\Downloads\LTC_minerz\cgminer\cgminer.exe (PUP.BitCoinMiner) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully. D:\Media\Downloads\LTC_minerz\stratumproxy\mining_proxy.exe (PUP.Proxy.BCM) -> Quarantined and deleted successfully.
Nuked 'em.
Wonder if I have (or hopefully had) a malware issue. GW2 is running in the background and it's still not crashed...
Ideas anyone? Am thinking about ordering a new CPU/Mobo and seeing if that fixes it - next on the list (after another crash) is going to be a W8 re-install.
OS re-installed and BIOS updated, still crashes. Definitely hardware. Definitely not RAM, definitely not storage (SSD or HDD). Crashes still independent of load - but most common when clicking on something (Firefox, Chrome or Evernote for example).
So the candicate list as far as I can work out is:
CPU (moderately likely, though stressing with linpack or OCCT or prime does not cause crashes, and it's happy while playing GW2) mobo (happy while gaming, unhappy when asked to execute a crappy little prgraom like Chrome. Weird? gotta be unlikely) PSU - Feeling like this is a likely candidate. GPU - but doesn't crash when rendering ~100 players at max res in GW2.
Soooooo.... can anyone think of a thing to test next?
Final edit: running on the onboard GPU on mah telly. Flawless, no crashes at all. I think it's the GPU, the 2D processing chip or whatever must've been borked.
Recap: new GPU, no crashes. All is now good!
submitted by SupahSpankeh to techsupport [link] [comments]

What is Bitcoin Mining? (In Plain English) - YouTube Bitcoin Miner - What is a Bitcoin Miner? - Video How to Find and Remove a Hidden Miner Virus on Your PC 🐛🛡️🖥️ What is Bitcoin Mining? - YouTube Bitcoin Q A What is the biggest threat - YouTube

Bitcoin mining is the processing of transactions in the digital currency system, in which the records of current Bitcoin transactions, known as a blocks, are added to the record of past transactions, known as the block chain. Inside this program is the bitcoin miner virus. This allows some other person to use your computer to mine bit-coins for themselves. It is attached to popular downloadable games so that thousands of computers are mining bit-coins for the person who set up the virus to mine for them. Le minage c’est le procédé par lequel les transactions Bitcoin sont sécurisées. A cette fin les mineurs effectuent avec leur matériel informatique des calculs mathématiques pour le réseau Bitcoin. Comme récompense pour leurs services, ils collectent les bitcoins nouvellement créés ainsi que les frais des transactions qu’ils confirment. Elle est divisée par deux tous les […] How to Detect BitCoin Miner Virus. It is very difficult to detect the BitCoin Miner Virus as it is a fileless malware. Traditional antivirus solutions, and most modern virus protection software are NOT capable of detecting fileless malware. You may attempt manual removal, however, it requires considerable technical skill as you have to interact with registry entries such as ... Introduction. Bitcoins have been around since 2008 but have only began gaining attention in September 2011. This increasing public attention did not go unnoticed by cybercriminals who have began unleashing Bitcoin-mining malware. The term "Bitcoin-mining malware" is used to refer to malware that cybercriminals use to install Bitcoin miners in users' systems.

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What is Bitcoin Mining? (In Plain English) - YouTube

Thanks For Watching... bitcoin bitcoin how to buy what bitcoin mining what bitcoin bitcoin how to mine bi... Skip navigation Sign in. Search. Loading... Close. This video is unavailable. For more information: and What is Bitcoin Mining? Have you ever wondered how Bitcoin is generated? T... 👍 Watch how to remove a hidden Bitcoin mining virus from your computer. If you noticed that your computer – while you’re not using it - still behaves as if i... What It Was Like MINING Cryptocurrency Full-Time For A Year Tails Health Update VoskCoin Rebrand - Duration: 23:44. VoskCoin Recommended for you Start trading Bitcoin and cryptocurrency here: Bitcoin mining is the process of updating the ledger of Bitcoin transactions known as th...